Paraverbal form of manifestation of insincerity indicators
It is an informative indicator of a person's emotional state. The spoken word is never neutral. When the internal state changes, the physiological parameters of the speech wave change: the character of the respiratory movements, the voice pulsation associated with the blood flow, the change in the basic tone of the voice, the vibration of the muscles of the vocal apparatus. You can distinguish the following qualities of speech: height, volume, speed, rhythm, timbre, melody, sonority, tension.
With the help of voice, such basic emotions are easily transmitted: fear, anger, joy, sadness, surprise, and emotional states: benevolence, anxiety, confidence. Nonverbal aspects of speech convey the following messages:
- what value does the subject want to give to a word or utterance in this situation, using for this purpose such means as intonation, pauses, stresses
- about the most telling - his biographical features (sex, age), emotional state, some personality traits.
There is no voice index of insincerity as such, there are vocal indicators of experiencing negative emotions. The voice, like the face, is connected with the zones of the brain involved in the emotion. Any excitement has a concrete manifestation in the sound of the voice. Changes in the voice that occur when an emotion occurs, is difficult to hide. So, the tone of the voice rises when a person is upset. With fear or anger, the voice will sound higher and louder, while the speed of speech will not change. With sadness, speech becomes quieter and slower. The discrepancy between the tone of voice and verbal content (since the tone of the voice is more difficult to control consciously than the content of statements) can be an indicator that a person is not sincere in his statements. The tempo, the ratio of the rates, the speed of speech in communication can be related both to the functional state of the speaker and to his temperament. A person excited says faster, slightly "swallowing" end of words, usually with some intonational pressure. In states of depression, fatigue, indifference, a different pace, slower. But if at that moment a person is interested in something, then he starts talking faster. If the pace of speech is too high, understanding can deteriorate, if low - the partner will often be distracted. It should be borne in mind that if the interlocutor is set to knowingly uncomfortable for him, then this can be a kind of trap: hurrying with the answer often starts to get confused and confused, clicks phrases and falls into a non-winning position.
Extraverbal form of manifestation of insincerity indicators
Uncontrolled or partially controlled indicators of insincerity include crying, groaning, laughing, sighing, etc.
Pauses between words.
Perform a regulatory function in the conversation, with their help, you can emphasize important points in the speech. They form a rhythmic picture of speech and make it more expressive. Pauses are also used for situational switching: evaluation of the partner's reaction, transfer of initiative in the conversation. The use of pauses can also be an effective means of manipulating the interlocutor: an unexpected and definitely given initiative can puzzle, make internally fuss. Therefore, those who feel very anxious and afraid to "hang in the void" or provoke a dangerous turn of conversation, sometimes avoid pauses.
If the interlocutor's information is distorted, the pauses may be too long or short, but often. This can be, for example, a swing before the start of a replica, especially if this occurs when answering a question. The need to ponder every word before pronouncing it - weighing alternatives, looking for words or thoughts, is manifested in the pauses of speech. When answering unexpected questions, it is important to pay attention to the recipient's response: when thinking about and choosing the most appropriate answer, he usually pauses.
The indicator of insincerity may be the appearance of pauses in answering questions that should not have caused difficulty; too quick answers to questions that should have made you think.
The analysis of theoretical works and empirical studies on this topic allowed us to systematize the described indicators. This material was structured in the form of a table (Table 7.6).
Table 7.6. System description of the insincerity of a person observed in the process of communication
As noted earlier, the definition of distortion of information should be based on a set of indicators. One single indicator can not be an accurate indicator of the distortion of information in the process of communication.
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