Part 1. The psychology of business communication
Chapter 1. Psychological features of interpersonal communications
Man is a social being. People are more comfortable to be in a society of their own kind than in solitude or among other entities. We live and work in the environment of people. Practically in any situation we have, sometimes regardless of our desire, to communicate with someone. In this case, some people like us, we treat others fairly neutrally, while we literally hate the third.
If we carefully take a closer look and watch ourselves, we will understand that people do not just simultaneously and coherently with their environment carry out some kind of activity. We interact with other people. For us, our role, place and influence in the world around us are of great importance, as the representatives of the society that are significant for us evaluate and perceive our activity. But for our part, we critically perceive other people, evaluate their actions and statements. In the process of communication, we exchange our experiences with them, experience the influence of their opinions, sometimes for one reason or another we imitate other people, taking their experience, behavior and even worldview. We often change our attachments (ie our own established psychological and behavioral reactions to certain external stimuli) under the influence of fashion (the averaged, volatile-unstable opinion of some part of our environment that is declared as general and peremptory, on certain external irritants). Taking our decision on an important and defining issue for us, we, more often and above all, try to take into account not our own interests, but the opinion of others. In this case, we work productively with some people, whereas with others we can not get an interaction.
A person lives and develops in society, exchanging verbal and nonverbal messages of information and emotional character with his other representatives. All this happens thanks to communication. Category communication is basic in understanding how people interact with each other. There are many approaches to this phenomenon. Let us dwell on the classical characteristics of this concept.
In sociopsychological science and practice, the view on communication as a communicative activity dominates.
1.1. Characteristics and content of communication
Communication is communication and information interaction of people. Interpersonal communication is associated with direct contact of people in groups or pairs. Communication is a complex and multifaceted process. We rarely think about what communication is, what factors make it more effective, what helps, and what prevents it from reaching an agreement with another person. It is a systematic understanding of the essence of communication, its multifunctionality will help make it more productive.
In United States psychology, the very concept of "communication" covers a wide range of phenomena, which includes processes of interaction, mutual influence, mutual understanding, empathy. Communication is multifaceted in its content and forms of manifestation. There are various psychological concepts of communication. Communication is considered:
- as a means of transferring information;
- activities (BG Ananiev, AN Leontiev);
- a specific form of interaction (BF Lomov);
- a way of knowing another person (AA Bodalev, VN Myasishchev, etc.);
- the condition of life (AA Bodalev);
- a way of conveying cultural and social experience (AA Leontiev, etc.),
- the method of influence (VM Bekhterev, EL Dotsenko, A. Yu. Panasyuk, etc.);
- a means of revealing the subjective world of the individual (GM Andreeva, etc.).
In general, interpersonal communication can be carried out with a primary reliance on two paradigms of psychological influences: "subject-object", i.e. unequal, and, therefore, manipulative, and "subject-subject" - Equitable, developing.
There are various classifications of types of communication. A. Yu. Panasyuk  cites the following classification of communication types:
- subordinate, service-comradely, confidential;
- in the form of a monologue, dialogue and polylogue;
- in the form of meetings, negotiations, speeches, listening, discussions;
- direct and indirect, etc. VG Krysko1 classifies communication:
- both verbal and non-verbal;
- interpersonal and mass;
- interpersonal and role;
- trust and conflict;
- short-term and long-term;
- finished and unfinished;
- direct and indirect;
- personal and business.
L. D. Stolyarenko proposes to distinguish:
- masks contact & quot ;;
- primitive communication;
- secular communication.
Structural components of communication (according to AN Leontiev):
o The subject of communication is the communication partner.
o The need for communication is the desire of the subject to know and evaluate other people and through them - to self-knowledge and self-esteem.
o Communicative motives of communication - an act of communicative activity addressed to another person. Here we can distinguish two basic categories of actions of communication - initiative and response.
o Communication tasks - is the goal that various actions performed in the communication process are aimed at achieving in this communicative situation.
o Means of communication - the operations by which communication activities are carried out.
o Product of communication - the formation of the material and spiritual plan, resulting in communication.
Communication as an activity is a system of elementary acts. Each act is defined:
- Subject - initiator of communication;
- the subject to which the initiative is addressed;
- the norms for which communication is organized;
- the goals that the communication participants pursue;
- the situation, in which the interaction takes place. Domestic researchers2 distinguish several basic functions of communication:
- communicative, associated with the actual transmission of information;
- affective, manifested in the transmission of an emotional relationship;
- Regulatory, motivating behavior and relationships change;
- Perceptual, associated with a person's knowledge of a person.
The goals of communication reflect the needs of people's joint activities. Communication involves some result - a change in the behavior or activities of other people. Thus, interpersonal interaction is a "sequence of time-based reactions of people to each other's actions." Speaking about the purposes of communication and summarizing the data of psychological research, it is necessary to note such goals as:
- installation, - developing,
- associated with the achievement of understanding and understanding,
- knowledge of the other and self-knowledge.
Often in the process of communication, a combination of several goals occurs.
The content character of the interaction of subjects is determined by the subject of communication. Based on this criterion, the following types of communication can be considered:
- information and communication, etc. [16, p. 10].
In communication, there are instrumental focus (for performing socially significant tasks, for work, for results) and personal orientation (to satisfy personal needs) [16, p. 9].
Business communication is object-oriented activity and is aimed at organizing and optimizing one or another type of objective activity: production, scientific, pedagogical, etc. According to Yu. M. Zhukov, in business communication, the subject of communication and the participants' attitudes towards it ( their subject positions) are the main determinants of the communication process. Ability to understand the partners' substantive positions, including their own, is a necessary condition for the success of communication. The main objective of business communication can be called productive cooperation, the desire to bring together goals, establish and improve partnership relations.
Business communication, according to AP Panfilova, assumes the implementation of the following conditions [16, p. 15-16].
1. Obligation of contacts of all communication participants, regardless of likes and dislikes.
2. Objective content of communication.
3. Compliance with the formal role-based principles of interaction, taking into account the roles, rights and responsibilities.
4. Interdependence of all participants of business communication in achieving the final result and in the implementation of personal intentions.
5. Communicative control of interaction participants.
6. Formal restrictions:
a) conventional restrictions, ie. observance of legal, social norms, adherence to regulations (observance of internal regulations, instructions, etc.);
b) Situational, ie. taking into account the situation of business communication (meeting, presentation, negotiations, etc.). Interaction purposefully, in a certain regulation, using adequate communication tools and achieving the expected result;
c) emotional, ie. the manifestation of stress resistance, the ability to control one's feelings and emotions in a tense business situation;
d) violent, ie. it is permissible to interrupt the contact of either party in those situations when the content of information ceases to be of an objective nature, when the reactions of the communication partner are inadequate to expectations and established norms of conduct.
The methods of interaction depend on the goals of communication, the features of its organization, the emotional mood of the interlocutors, the level of their culture. It should also be noted that as a dialectical process, communication is a unity of two opposing tendencies: to cooperation, to integration, on the one hand, and to struggle, differentiation, on the other. The most noticeable is the dualism of communication in a variety of its kind, like business communication.
Scientists distinguish the following basic characteristics of communication:
- style [17, p. 21-25].
Communication can have different content, which is expressed in the following:
- the transfer of information from person to person;
- the perception of each other;
- a mutual evaluation;
- the interaction of partners in communicating with each other;
- partner interaction
- management of group or mass activity, etc.
Since business communication is a subject-target activity, the content of each communication form (talks, discussion, report, etc.), as well as each speech structure (conclusion, opinion, cue, critical remark) depends on the communicative intent and the expected result. Every specific goal in business communication requires the content of communication, which allows it to be implemented and to achieve the necessary results. The success of business communication, according to Yu. M. Zhukov, depends on the adequacy of attitudes, the understanding of his subject and interpersonal position, the knowledge of the patterns of various forms of communication and rules of behavior in various situations, the ability to form a tactical plan and implement it on the basis of existing social skills. This situation is especially important in those situations when there is an assumption about the possible insincerity of a business partner. As norms the society develops a certain system of patterns of behavior, the violation of which includes mechanisms of social control, which, in turn, ensures correction of deviant behavior.
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