1.2. Perceptual side of communication: how people perceive each other
For understanding the following material, we consider it advisable to introduce the reader to key concepts and definitions:
o Perception - a mental cognitive process that consists in a holistic reflection in the human psyche of objects, objects, phenomena in general acting directly on his sense organs, rather than their individual sides and qualities, as in sensation.
o Social Perception - perception, study, understanding, evaluation by people of social objects (other people, themselves, groups, social communities, etc.); the process of formation in the public and individual consciousness of images of social objects as a result of perception, cognition, understanding by people of each other.
The perception of a person by a person in the process of interpersonal communication is based on the laws of social perception and includes the perception, understanding and evaluation by people of each other, which makes it possible to form an adequate image of the interlocutor and choose the appropriate style of communication and interaction. In general, in the course of social perception, an emotional assessment of the other, an attempt to understand the causes of his actions and predict his behavior. Perception and understanding of a partner can be complicated by the fact that the interlocutor is often not passive, but can himself influence the communicator, seeking to create a positive impression.
In the process of communication, the "cognition of another person" occurs. (AA Bodalev). This implies the perception not only of the physical characteristics of the object, but also of its behavioral characteristics, the formation of an idea of its intentions, thoughts, abilities, emotions, attitudes, etc. On the basis of the external side of the behavior, the interlocutors, as it were, "read" another person, decrypt the meaning of his external data, from the measure "readings" another person depends on the success of interaction with him.
Since interpersonal perception is one of the sides of communication, a special role is played by expectations, desires, intentions, and past experience of man as special components of a particular life situation. All this must be taken into account when the knowledge of another person is considered as a basis not only for understanding the partner, but also for establishing coordinated actions with it. In the course of knowledge of another person, a number of tasks are synchronously solved: the emotional assessment of the partner in communication, an attempt to understand the totality of his actions and the strategy based on this for changing his behavior and, accordingly, building his own strategy. In constructing one's own interaction strategy, the communicator needs to take into account not only the needs, motives and settings of the interlocutor, but also take into account how he understands the needs, motivations and settings of the communicator. Knowing the mechanisms of the process of perception and understanding of another person (identification, causal attribution, reflection, empathy, feedback, etc.) helps to understand how communicators sometimes miss the obvious signals of distortion of information in the communication process. Consider these mechanisms.
Identification is the process of unconscious identification by a subject of himself with another person (a group of people, an image) when the assumption of the interlocutor's inner state is based on the attempt to put himself in his place.
Empathy (from the Greek - empathy) - the quality of the person, this ability to penetrate through the senses in the emotional experiences of other people, sympathize with them, share their experiences, response.
Reflexion is a person's inner psychic activity aimed at understanding his own actions and states; self-knowledge of one's spiritual world; a person's awareness of how he is perceived by the communication partner.
Feedback is based on the feedback of the communication partner.
Reverse afferentation is a process of behavior correction based on information received from the brain from outside on the results of ongoing activities.
Causal attribution is a causal explanation of the actions of another person when information about these causes is absent. It is most often carried out unconsciously either on the basis of identification or by referring a partner but communicating to a certain category of persons with respect to which some stereotyped ideas have been developed. G. Kelly identifies three types of attribution: personal, stimulative and circumstantial. Scientists have been identified [1, p. 124] that the observer more often uses personal attribution, and the participant more often explains what is happening by circumstances.
The content of interpersonal perception depends on the characteristics of both the subject and the object of perception because they are included in a certain interaction that has two sides: evaluating each other and changing some characteristics of each other due to the very fact of its presence [1, p. 124]. Both the subject and the object of social perception influence each other and, as a rule, tend to make a positive impression, which is especially important to take into account in the face of insincere business communication. Here it is necessary to add that in the process of interaction a number of communicative tasks are solved: the process of information exchange, clarification of unclear data that allows to obtain a more accurate characterization of the object of perception.
The process of understanding a person by man is also influenced by some distortions of the notion of another person. These are: the effects of the first impression (setting), halo, primary and novelty, sterse-typing. The presence of these effects is especially important to consider in conditions of insincere persuasive impact.
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