Portrait of the target audience
The portrait of the target audience is important for understanding the characteristics and characteristics of the target groups, as well as for the development and adequate placement of competent advertising messages that can be understood and accepted by these groups. When composing a portrait, the target audience is given stable characteristics. In their traditional set, the following data is necessarily present:
Within the first data block - geographical - a number of indicators are taken into account. First of all, we are talking about the location of the region where the goods are distributed and where the representative of the target group can acquire it. Important here is the understanding of the development of this region, the volume of population in general and representatives of the target group in particular. It is also important to know other indicators, such as the structure of commercial activity, climatic conditions, legal restrictions, the development of transport, the media, the advertising market, etc. Geographic segmentation is the simplest method of segmentation, but important enough.
So, the inhabitants of the southern regions often have their own special habits, different from the habits of people living in the north. Or another example - some products that sell very well in cities can be very poorly sold in rural areas.
Socio-demographic indicators take into account age, gender, marital status and family size, nationality, profession and education. Under the United States conditions, when compiling a portrait of a consumer, the national factor is almost not taken into account, which is listed among the most important. However, when analyzing advertising and its perception, it often turns out that this or that advertising message is not simply not perceived, but rejected by the addressee because of the peculiarities of the national mentality. It is for this reason, for example, in the United States in the development of advertising, the national factor is recognized as significant and important as sex, age and other demographic indicators. It is equally important to take into account the characteristics of the target segment on the basis of gender differences. Manufacturers of perfumery, clothing and footwear actively take into account this circumstance. For example, the language used when selling cosmetics to men is different when selling the same cosmetics to women. Similarly, age differences make it necessary to take into account the different degree of willingness to purchase different groups for the development of advertising. It has long been known that with age, consumers' consumption and opportunities are changing. Therefore, on what stage of the life cycle a person is in, the type of goods that he is acquiring depends on.
In the United States at the end of the last century, an attempt was made to compile a table reflecting the stages of the life cycle and product preferences that are most characteristic for different age groups. So, schoolchildren and adolescents basically buy school goods, disks, snacks, soft drinks, etc. For middle-aged people ( 35-49 years ) the greatest interest is the improvement of housing conditions, the acquisition of a more expensive car, the purchase of a second car, new furniture, leisure equipment, jewelry, food, wine, clothes. And elderly people over 65 are spending most of their money on medical services, drugs and shopping for young people.
As part of the socio-economic characteristics of the consumer, his employment, income level, which serves as the basis for purchasing power, are considered. In this case, however, it is necessary to take into account that at the same level of income consumers can have very different consumer activity. One will spend all of his monthly salary for the same month, and the other will save some of the amount for expensive purchases, or even for a "black day". Therefore, for the adjustment it is very important to take into account the psychographic characteristics in the consumer portrait.
The psychographic section is directly related to the lifestyle of the consumer, his behavioral habits, character traits and life positions. In addition, it is appropriate to take into account both the way of life, the value system, and the dominant motives of behavior. Many studies show that sometimes the habits of the consumer are associated with other factors. For example, residents of large cities are more likely than small residents to visit restaurants and cafes, recreational facilities and entertainment. Psychography classifies people in relation to life and their buying habits. Representatives of one demographic group may differ in their psychographic characteristics. The latter contribute to a better understanding of the audience and enable advertising to try to establish the necessary emotional or rational link between the product and its buyer.
Finally, based on the analysis of all the above characteristics, the portrait of the consumer segment can be characterized by behavioral characteristics, which are also important for the promotion of any product and the possibility of its advertising. Within the dominant features of consumer behavior in relation to a particular product, the following are taken into account: the intensity of the use of the product, the experience of its use, brand loyalty, the degree of loyalty to the firm and brand, the reason for making a purchase, the importance of buying, adapting to the product, the dominant motives of buying, specific goods, the ability to respond to new products on the market.
When analyzing consumer behavior, several main angles are highlighted that are significant for the subsequent advertising of the product. First of all, we are talking about relation to the brand. And in connection with this, we can present several main groups:
• new users - those who have a hidden or passive desire to possess a product;
• Trademarkers are those who purchase goods more from habit,
• Consumers who use different trademarks of similar products and in a certain case under the influence of certain factors (for example, economic factors) are ready to buy another brand. This circumstance is often used in marketing policy due to a temporary reduction in prices, provision of discounts, etc.
The next criterion for analyzing consumer behavior is the category of loyalty. Any business operating in an established market, sooner or later comes to the fact that the indicator "price-quality his proposals cease to differ from those of competitors, and sellers of goods and service providers are beginning to seek opportunities to improve their competitiveness. To find new, and more importantly, to retain existing customers is the main goal of marketing relationships with consumers, the main instrument of which is loyalty programs. Consumers with absolute loyalty, a certain degree of loyalty, inconsistent loyalty, no certain loyalty or not loyal to the brand need varying degrees of attention and react differently to both advertising in general and to various targeted offers of the company.
Other criteria for behavioral analysis when segmenting: the reason for purchase, seasonality of consumption, user status (former, potential, new, regular) and the degree of use of the product (low, medium, high activity). In addition, based on knowledge of the product, it is necessary to analyze the degree of readiness for purchase. For example, some consumers may not be aware of the product, others are already aware of its existence, some are aware of its consumer properties, and some are already willing to make a purchase.
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