The principle of formation of the cost of logistics services
Logistic service, like every product, is in demand by the market only in the case of a stable consumer demand.
The law of demand in logistics outsourcing is the dependence of the volumes of demand and supply of logistics services on the market from their prices. Dependence is expressed by a decrease in the demand for logistics services with an increase in cost (Figure 15.1).
In Fig. 15.1 illustrates the dynamics of (i, b) changes in demand. The volume ((2) of demand (P) decreases with the increase in the cost (C) of the logistics service.
Fig. 15.1. Change in the dynamics of demand for logistics services
In the formation of the price-list for the services provided, a logistics company operating in one or another territory takes into account two main factors: the dynamics of the demand described above for logistics services; cost of costs associated with the implementation of the logistics process.
The principle of formation of the cost of logistics services takes into account the ratio of the cost of the logistics service and the level of current demand for it at different costs. The cost of a logistics service must meet the following requirements:
1. The monetary expression of the value of the logistics service should be higher than the monetary expression of the cost of the logistics service.
2. The level of the cost of the logistic service of an enterprise in a competitive environment should be comparable with the levels of the cost of logistics services of competitors with conditionally equal quality and volume of logistics services, which can be illustrated by the following expression:
CC & lt; C & lt; With con ,
where С нZл - the cost price of logistical service of the enterprise (the logistical company); C - the cost of the logistical service of the enterprise (logistics company); C k0 || is the average cost of a logistics service in a competitive environment.
Based on the above, we can conclude that in modern conditions, when forming the logistics cost, the head of the logistics company must take into account the amount of demand
for one or another logistics service in the region and the structure of the cost price of its own logistics service, and, of course, the cost of the service should be higher than the cost price. In turn, the value of the profit from the sale of the logistics service should not only cover the current needs of the organizational and production structure of the logistics company, but also take into account the possibility of covering certain logistics risks.
Conditions for the formation of logistics costs
When assessing the average market value of a logistics service, it is necessary to use modern methods of monitoring the external environment of the market. An effective methodology for monitoring the external environment must satisfy the following conditions: 1) the number of objects surveyed in the region - logistics companies should be as high as possible; 2) data on the cost of logistics services should be reliable. The objectivity of estimating the average cost of a logistics service is important for forecasting the current and medium-term prospects of a logistics company.
In modern conditions, logistic cost performs the function of differentiating logistics companies. Those companies whose costs are high, lose the price competitive advantage and are forced to stop their professional activities: those companies that "work" over cost reduction - are developing steadily.
The simplest formula of logistic cost allows you to determine the price basis on which it is possible to build a competitive price for a logistics service:
where Sbaz is the base cost; С иZд - the cost price of logistical service of the enterprise (the logistical company); ІУ - the commercial margin of a logistics company.
The presented formula is correlated with the Marxist theory of value, in which C edd includes the labor costs of the logistics service, as well as the necessary materials and depreciation of fixed assets. At the same time, N relies on the law of demand and is a subjective variable that depends on the will of the head of the logistics company, i.e. N is the amount of profit that the head of the logistics company seeks to obtain.
Given the apparent simplicity of formula (15.1), it provides a fairly accurate calculation of the final value, which appears in the commercial contract for the provision of logistics services. It is from the volume of the commercial margin that the head of the logistics company can provide a discount on the logistics service.
Based on the above, it can be concluded that under current conditions, when creating the cost of a logistics service, the cost price and the commercial margin are not exhaustive, it is also necessary to be guided by the monitoring data of the price policy of the logistics companies in the region.
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