7.3. Principles of effective detection of untruthful information
The question of assessing the effectiveness of diagnosis of insincerity on the part of the interlocutor is important both in theoretical and in applied relations. Its complexity is connected with the choice of reliable criteria and indicators of the insincerity of the interlocutor. At the analysis it is necessary to use complex, system, subject approaches.
The integrated approach is aimed at integrating knowledge about the different qualities, properties, states of the person in which he performs his life.
The complexity of the issue of criteria and indicators of the effectiveness of diagnosis of a partner's insincerity in the process of communication is related to the choice of the criteria and the insincerity of the communication partner.
Criterion - this is the sign on which the assessment, definition or classification of something is made. It expresses essential changes in the development of the object. Indicator stands for the criterion as private to common. However, in the analysis it is necessary to take into account that no indicator of distortion of information is reliable for all people. Special attention in assessing the sincerity of the interlocutor should be given to those factors that depend little on the ability to imitate them according to conscious influence (VG Zazykin, A. Yu. Panasyuk). Only a complex analysis of human behavior can determine the truth or falsity of its message. Insincerity indicators are individual. First of all, it is necessary to pay attention to the change in the behavior of the interlocutor in the communication process.
The basic requirements for insincerity indicators in communication will be the following: indicators should be a qualitative characteristic of the assessed state and be sufficient to correctly record changes in the internal state of the interlocutor. Based on the analyzed literature, it was possible to identify the following forms of manifestation of insincerity indicators:
- at the psychophysiological level of the functioning of the psyche - the vegetative, kinetic form;
- at the psychological level - behavioral, mental, visual-motor forms;
- on the socio-psychological - verbal, paraverbal, extraverbal forms.
When diagnosing the insincerity of a communication partner, it is necessary to take into account both the individual characteristics of the interlocutor and the specifics of the behavior.
A person's basic predisposition to distorting information is the personality characteristics of the person (II B. Ganpushkin, G. V. Grachev, J. Dupra, K. Leonhard, I. K. Melnik, F. Riemann, L. N. Sobchik, K. Jung, and others). The work of domestic and foreign researchers confirms the fact that extroverts have a more pronounced tendency to distort information in different situations than introverts. "To date, there is no doubt that a number of psychological qualities of a person, for example, such as hysteroidity, or associated demonstrativeness, are manifested in embellishing their own abilities, including by using lies and other ways to deceive people around them. For the lies of hysterics, it is often characterized ... full mastery of the psyche by one's own inventions and illusions ... At the same time, the hysteroid often reports its actions, but can not or does not want to abandon the chosen form of behavior, with painful perseverance defending its fictions and fantasies " . Because of this, extroverts, especially demonstrative personalities, are more prone to distortion of information - PB Ganpushkin identifies a separate group of demonstrative personalities - "pathological liars" - confabulators.
Scientists (GV Grachev, IK Melnyk, A. Yu. Panasyuk, P. Ekman, etc.) have found that, since many signs of distortion of information are indirect, in determining the degree of sincerity of a partner in conditions business communication, it is necessary to observe a number of principles that allow for more objective evaluation of the information received:
o inexpediency of fast and unambiguous conclusions;
o the need for an integrated approach to the evaluation of known and observed factors;
o the need to take into account personal factors, the alleged motives, as well as the context of the situation;
o the need to know the technological methods of distorting information, as well as a comprehensive analysis of incoming information.
With the exception of the "patologic liars", for most people it is more difficult to distort information than to tell the truth, so the inner state of a person is changing. Consequently, behavior also changes. How much a person can be difficult to tell lies, depends on the psychic qualities of this particular person, the situational danger of exposure, the presence or absence of experience in this matter.
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