As a result of studying this chapter, the student will:


• the importance and role of marketing in providing the process of developing new products and in product management;

• The algorithm for developing new products based on the use of marketing innovations;

• the basics of market testing of commodity prototypes;

be able to

• apply key technologies for developing new products in product management;

• organize the process of developing new products at the firm;

• ensure interaction with other services of the company with the aim of implementing an effective product policy;


• methods of creating ideas;

• the skills of commercializing the market launch of new products;

• ways to build a system of performance indicators for marketing innovation activities associated with the market launch of new products.

Creating and selecting ideas

In the process of marketing innovation, aimed at creating innovative products, the first stage is the creation of ideas for new products. It can be based on the results of research on demand or on the approach of "marketing-guru", i.e. the ability of marketing managers to anticipate the evolution of existing or the emergence of new, at the time of creating new products unknown and not realized by consumers, needs. The third option is the initiative to create new products by R & D staff - engineers, chemists, biologists, information technology specialists and other specialized workers employed in the research and development department.

Creating ideas for new products requires a creative approach and the availability of creative people in the marketing department. For a more effective re -

This stage of the company can use the appropriate methods of organizing the collective creative interaction, presented below.

Brainstorming and its variations. Brainstorming is quite popular and widely used in practice method of solving a variety of business problems, including creating ideas for new products. The key advantage of the method is the simplicity of its organization; while the correct application of the method leads to fairly high results.

Brainstorming appeared in the 1950s. in the advertising business of the USA, with its help, advertisers developed creative concepts of advertising campaigns. Then the method has spread to other industries and companies, and nowadays it is applied everywhere.

Brainstorming is conducted in the format of the meeting of the department. In the case of developing new products, brainstorming must be carried out within the framework of separate meetings of marketing, R & D, production and sales departments. In the course of the brainstorming session, the participants are identified with a problem that they are discussing for 40 minutes. It is believed that human consciousness is able to produce ideas productively in the event of brain concentration on any problem during this particular time period.

When brainstorming the role of the organizer (moderator) is very important. He must create a positive creative atmosphere, give the opportunity to liberate himself and speak out to all participants in the discussion, do not press his authority and skillfully direct the discussion. The organizer must also skillfully manage the process, snatching out the flow of ideas expressed is really useful. These ideas can then be submitted to them for further discussion. In addition to the organizer, brainstorming also implies the presence of a secretary - an employee who does not participate in the discussion, but only records all the suggestions and ideas expressed. For clarity, you can even use the projector so that all participants see on the screen the intermediate results of the discussion of the problem and the ideas they proposed.

The result of brainstorming is formalized in the form of a report that includes all the ideas and the course of their discussion. This document is transmitted to a higher level of management, which is discussed during the next brainstorm. The highest management body of the company, such as the board of directors, having reports from different departments available, also conducts its brainstorming, but the results of which determine an approximate version of the concept of the new product.

Similar to the brainstorming methods are the 6-3-5 and Delphi & quot ;.

The essence of the method is "6-3-5 consists in the fact that 6 invited employees in 5 minutes offer 3 ideas for a new product. To use this method, a special room is assigned to the office of the company, where every 5 minutes a new group of specialists offers their ideas, recording them on specially designed forms. Thus, after half an hour of holding the organization receives at its disposal 108 ideas for a new product.

The "Delphi" method, named after the ancient city of Greece where the oracle lived, also consists of submitting ideas to employees in writing, but has no time limits. The ideas fixed on paper are passed on to other employees who anonymously criticize the proposed ideas, agreeing and supporting them or criticizing them, but in the second case, the reviewers should propose their own versions of the product development.

The method of focal objects. The method of focal objects (MFIs) was proposed in 1923 by E. Kupce, professor at the Berlin University. In the 1950s. C. Whiting improved it in the USA. The method of focal objects is characterized by simplicity and large (unlimited) possibilities of searching for new ideas in product development. In the method, associative search and heuristic randomness properties are used, and its essence is activation of human associative thinking.

The method of focal objects consists in transferring the signs of randomly selected objects to the product being developed, which lies in the focus of the transfer and is therefore called focal.

Technique of using the focal object method:

1. A focal object is assigned. As a rule, this is the product that should be developed or improved; Also, individual attributes or properties of a product may act as a focal object.

2. Randomly, using the Internet, a book, a dictionary, any other text, objects are defined in the number from four to seven.

3. The development team makes a list of properties, characteristics, characteristic for these random objects (five or six interesting words - adjectives, verbal participles, verbs).

4. The characteristics of random objects are alternately attached to the focal object, and the relationships of the selected features with the focal object are determined.

5. The options are evaluated and the most interesting and effective solutions are selected.

For example, the development team was tasked to develop ideas for a new model of coffee mug. Random objects from the book were a bell, candy and a brick. The developers voiced and recorded the signs of random objects that were written out (Table 8.1). Then, as a result of the discussion, the most suitable ones were selected, which formed the basis for the ideas for developing a new model of a circle. In the table, they are in italics.

Method of "six hats". This technique allows you to order the creative process by mentally putting on one of the six hats. For example, in a white hat, a person analyzes the figures and facts impartially, then puts on a black hat and looks for the negative in everything. After that, it's the turn of the yellow hat to find the positive aspects of the problem. Wearing green, a person generates new ideas, and in red can afford emotional reactions. The blue hat sums up. This method is good because the developer can feel like six different people and can assess the situation from different angles.

Table 8.1

Example of generating ideas for a new product using the

focal objects

Focal Object

Characteristics of random objects





Electrical ;









Alarm clock;

with stuffing;

Heat ;



security tool;








for diabetics;









Mental cards. According to the author of the "mental maps Tony Buzena, creativity is associated with memory, which means that strengthening memory will improve the quality of creative processes. A traditional recording system with headings and paragraphs prevents memorization. Bussen suggested placing a key concept (or an advertised product) in the center of the sheet, and all associations worthy of memorization should be written on branches emerging from the center. It is better if the thoughts are backed up graphically. The process of drawing a map encourages the emergence of new associations, and the image of the resulting tree will remain in memory for a long time. An example of implementation of the method is shown in Fig. 8.1.

the dotted arrows connect related parameters

Fig. 8.1. Example of creating ideas for a new product using the method

mental maps:

The synectics is close in meaning to the method of focal objects considered above. However, this method has its own specifics. During its use, product developers create a table for analogies of the product they develop. The right column of the table lists all direct analogies with the product, in the second - indirect (for example, the negation of the characteristics of the first column). Then the developers need to match the goal, the object and the indirect analogies.

An example of a method implementation:

• The object is a pencil, the task is to expand the assortment.

• Direct analogy - a volume pencil, its negation - a flat pencil.

• The result is a pencil-bookmark.

Morphological analysis. Using this method, the product being developed must be conditionally divided into parts, and these parts should be attributes of a new product. Next, you need to set the attributes to the maximum possible number of characteristics and select from them a few significant or previously unused in other products and try to reconnect the attributes. As a result, a product with new, unique properties should be obtained.

For example, you need to come up with a business card design for a perfume company. If you change the classical form and the effect on the senses, you can get a triangular business card with the smell of perfume.

Principle Scamper & quot ;. More universal, combining many of the methods already discussed above is the principle of "Scamper" (SCAMPER). This method consists in developing ideas by finding answers to questions that are included in seven groups. Each group of questions forms a letter in the abbreviation of the name, which makes it easier to memorize the method (in English). To groups of questions in principle Scamper include the following:

S. Substitution ( Substitute ):

1. Can I swap parts of a product?

2. Can I change the shape of the product?

3. What happens if you change the color, composition, odor and other properties of the product?

C . Combined (Combine):

1. Is it possible to combine any characteristics of the product?

2. Is it possible to combine any materials used in the product?

3. Can I create combined product variants?

A. Adaptation (Adapt):

1. Are there any ideas, characteristics, products from the past or other industries that you can use to develop a new product?

2. What new segments, new consumers might be interested in a new product?

3. Is it possible to apply any technologies and processes from other areas in the production of a new product?

M. Increase {Magnify) -.

1. What if we increase the size of the product?

2. Is it possible to increase any part or characteristic of the product?

3. What part of the product or its characteristic can be strengthened, can you add additional characteristics to the product being developed?

Р. Find other areas and ways of consuming or using the product {Put to another uses):

1. Who else from consumers could use this product?

2. Could the developed product be consumed by elderly people and children?

3. Is it possible to use ideas, materials and existing production technologies of this product somewhere else?

E. Elimination ( Eliminate ):

1. Without which part or characteristic of the product can you manage?

2. What part of the product can be reduced by making the product more compact?

3. Is it possible to simplify the product as a whole?

R. Rearrange/Reverse {Rearrange/Reverse):

1. Can I rearrange any parts of the product?

2. Can a new product be completely turned inside out?

3. Is it possible to turn the weaknesses of a product into its merits?

In addition to the described methods, in the process of developing ideas for new products, experts also recommend the use of the fish bone method, which allows to structure the direction of creating new ideas and proposals by groups of characteristics. For this stage of developing ideas for new products, you can also use a purely engineering approach using the theory of solving inventive problems (TRIZ).

The theory of solving inventive problems is a set of methods united by common principles. TRIZ helps in organizing the thinking of the inventor when searching for the idea of ​​invention. It makes this search more focused, productive, contributes to finding an idea of ​​a higher inventive level.

In TRIZ, a number of tools are used to solve problems. These are:

1. Table of elimination of technical contradictions, in which contradictions are represented by two conflicting parameters. For a successful combination of parameters it is suggested to use several methods of eliminating technical contradictions. In total there are 40 techniques that are formulated and classified based on statistical research of inventions. The goal is to find a compromise in comparing technical contradictions and finding the optimal combination of technical parameters for a new product.

2. Standards of problem solving. First, standard problem situations are formulated in the design. To solve these situations, standard solutions are proposed using engineering calculations.

3. A small (real-field) analysis. The theory of solving inventive problems presupposes the existence of a knowledge base in which possible options for connections between components of technical systems are identified and classified. In this base, regularities are also revealed and the principles of their transformation formulated for solving a particular engineering problem are formulated.

4. Index of physical effects. The knowledge base should describe the most common physical effects for inventions and the possibilities of using them to solve inventive problems.

5. Methods of developing creative imagination. A number of techniques and methods are used to overcome the inertia of thinking in solving creative problems.

Using the methods of creating new ideas, as a rule, leads to a large array of sentences. Obviously, it is usually not possible to implement all and many of them in a new product. To determine the further course of developing a new product, it is necessary to evaluate all ideas and proposals received. This stage is called the selection (screening). When it is conducted, all ideas and proposals are evaluated for compliance with different criteria in order to filter the whole array and select the most promising ideas, which then serve as the basis for developing the concept of the new product.

The key criteria for the prospects of ideas and suggestions are usually the following:

1. Correspondence of the general corporate strategy - does the idea correspond to the company's core competencies, specialization and business objectives?

2. The consumer - who acts as the target consumer of the product? What are its needs and how much is the idea of ​​the product capable of solving them? Is this segment profitable enough?

3. Competition - do competitors have alternative products, equivalent products or substitutes? What will the new product compete with? What is the competitiveness of the idea of ​​a new product?

4. Market - what are the key market trends? What is the market potential of the product idea?

5. Resources - Does the firm have sufficient resources to realize the idea of ​​the product?

6. Profit - what profit can you get while implementing the idea and in what time? What are the costs of creating and promoting the product?

The result of the screening can be visualized in the form of a matrix (Table 8.2), in which all ideas and suggestions fit in and where they are given a score in the form of a score or a qualitative description.

When selecting ideas for the development of a new product, it is also worthwhile to enclose each idea in terms of the result that it will achieve in the area of ​​novelty of the product. In total six levels of such novelty are known:

1) new completely;

2) a new product line;

3) addition to the existing product line;

4) improvement (modernization) of existing products;

5) repositioning;

6) price reduction.

Example of a selection matrix

Table 8.2

And ley









Existing and possible competition





Idea 1

Idea 2

The idea of ​​ 3

After the screening, the team of new product developers receives all the necessary data to describe the concept of the new product, which is the fundamental document for the operationalization and specification of the further development process.

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