PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PERCEPTION OF ADVERTISING
As a result of mastering this chapter, the student must:
• what is the target audience of advertising messages;
• what psychological factors should be considered when creating advertising;
• Modern methods for evaluating the effectiveness of advertising;
be able to
• present a portrait of a consumer for a specific advertising campaign;
• highlight the main components of the consumer's social and psychological setting;
• make a plan for evaluating the effectiveness of an advertising campaign;
• Analysis and comparison of behavioral characteristics of the audience for advertising campaigns in various business segments.
Target audience of advertising messages
Any advertising message, regardless of the channel of its distribution, must first of all consider the addressee, i.e. to whom it is sent. In this connection, the addressee is not a personalized unit, but a certain group, therefore, as a rule, it is defined as the target audience of advertising. Target group, target audience of advertising ( target group, target audience ) - the main and most important category of advertisers for the advertiser. Classic marketing Philip Kotler believes that it can consist of: potential buyers of the company's products; consumers; those who make a decision; those who influence decision making.
The audience is represented by individuals, groups, a certain circle or the whole of society. The sender's decisions about what, when, where and how to access the target audience are determined by its specific features.
Determining and searching for the target audience of the product is a crucial issue already at the stage of formation and development of any business. This issue remains a priority when promoting this product. An accurate representation of who is a consumer of the company's products or services, knowledge of the nature, habits, and consumption parameters make it possible to present the product most clearly in advertising, to speak with the consumer in a language that is understandable to him, and thus to facilitate the perception of treatment. The wrong definition of the target audience entails either the failure of the product on the market, or, most often in practice, a significant increase in budgets for the creation and promotion of the product.
The target audience is selected from the general audience, taking into account various characteristics related to the geographic, demographic, economic, psychological and behavioral characteristics of consumers.
Segmentation of target audiences
As we have already said, products and products on the market can be offered for use in this or that sector of business, as well as for the personal use of consumers. On this basis, there are two main types of target audience:
• target audience in the business ( b2b - business for business);
• target audience in the sphere of the individual consumer (62с - business for users).
Marketers and experts in the field of advertising believe that it is more difficult to determine the target audience in the sector b2c than in b2b. This is due to the fact that b2b -sector is more stable, not subject to strong fluctuations in demand, for the promotion of products, completely different technologies are used here. Most often it's about direct sales, working with databases. Therefore, for 626 it is important from the very beginning to correctly identify the target audience, and then slightly adjust it. In the b2c -sector, the target audience can change due to various circumstances. Changes, sometimes very significant, the target segment of the audience can be exposed due to the appearance of new offers, fashion trends, climatic problems, etc. on the market. Therefore, it is important to constantly monitor the slightest fluctuations in demand, find their cause and, in accordance with this, change the promotion policy, and perhaps even refine the parameters of the target audience.
In the summer of 2010, the sellers of air conditioners and fans collided with the rush demand. Demand was associated with an unprecedented summer heat. According to market participants, not only the volume of equipment sold, but also the portrait of the consumer, has changed. Among them were people whom the sellers themselves did not consider their target consumers.
The principles of segmentation of the target audience are developed in detail and presented in the specialized literature on marketing and advertising. The target segment is considered to be the group of people who are most interested in buying the proposed product and has its own ideas about its appearance, packing, distribution areas, etc. In this regard, it is quite practical for segmentation to consider the methodology proposed by Mark Sherrington, the founder of the international consulting company Added Value. The technique for simplicity of understanding is called 5W - by the first letters of five English interrogative words , which Sherrington considers basic when segmenting the audience of consumers.
M. Sherrington's Methodology:
• what ( what? ) ;
• who ( who? ) ;
• why ( why? ) ;
• when ( when? ) ;
• where ( where? ).
It's hard not to agree with the questionnaire presented, because the answer to each question is very important for understanding the target audience. The answer to the first question gives an understanding of what kind of product we are promoting in the market, how it is designed, how it is packaged. It can, for example, be loose sweets; they can be packed in transparent bags of 200 grams or in beautiful gift boxes. The second answer gives an idea of who can be the consumer of this product. In this case, we are interested in sex, age, income level. It is necessary to know why the audience chooses a particular product, what is the motivation for its acquisition. In one case it will be a price, in another - originality or non-standard of the goods, in the third - vital necessity or something else. Question when? is also important for understanding consumer behavior. Some goods are purchased more often by the holidays, others - in a certain season. Sometimes a consumer buys something in the evening - so familiar, and something in the morning. And finally, the fifth question implies that when promoting and advertising the product, we need to understand where it is purchased - in a stall, supermarket, a store near the house.
It is clear that research is needed to determine the target segments, which can give a better idea of the structure of the target group, its preferences and habits, tastes and motivations.
Nestle, with a view to segmenting the light snack market, interviewed more than 2 thousand respondents. As a result, 30 thousand "possible reasons for a snack were allocated. On their basis, exact target audiences of various products were identified. In particular, studies have shown that expensive boxes of chocolates, which are accepted to promote as gift, have a target audience such as "depressive chocolate lovers" ( in Nestlé terminology ) . These are young women who love chocolate and buy it to unwind, when they are depressed or are bored in the evenings at home. The taste and quality of chocolate for them is very important, so they choose sweets in expensive boxes. In addition, for them, this is a way of self-assertion and increased self-esteem. The orientation of advertising promotion to this target audience significantly increased the sale of expensive boxes of chocolates.
The example shows the need for an accurate representation of the nature of the consumer. He also shows that one should not be afraid of "shrinking" target audience of the goods. On the contrary, the narrower the segment, the more clearly you can build a promotion strategy. Accordingly, the cost of promotion will be significantly reduced, and sales will increase.
The target audience, as we already mentioned earlier , can refer not only to direct consumers, but also those who make a purchasing decision. For example, women fairly attribute to the target audience many goods for men, for in many cases they are the initiators, inspirers and participants in the purchase. Another case that manufacturers and sellers of medicines today use quite unabashedly, namely the inclusion of medical workers in the target audience, who sometimes simply recommend and sometimes impose a drug on their patients. In some cases (especially those related to advertising services), the target audience may be the company's own employees. McDonald's allocates at least three of its audience: franchisers, consumers and employees. Target audience can also be opinion leaders or persons influencing others, for example artists or politicians. However, it is usually customary for primary audiences to refer those consumers who are in the relevant market segment.
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