10.2. Psychology of advertising communications
10.2.1. Psychological factors of formation of interest to advertising
Advertising communication is an important component of mass communication. Advertising has become so firmly established in our lives that a professional approach is necessary to advertising communications.
An important psychological challenge facing the creators of advertising is to ensure the transition of attention to advertising and a steady interest in it. It should be noted that there is no relationship between attention and interest in direct and unambiguous psychological ties, but the necessity of developing these links is undeniable.
That is why knowledge of the basic laws of psychology helps to competently develop the basic parameters of advertising concepts. French scientist of the late XIX century. G. Lebon in his book "Psychology of Peoples" wrote: "Ideas do not affect behavior until they are translated into the language of feelings." The task of advertising is to be such an interpreter.
The most important in advertising are the psychological aspects of motivating the behavior of a potential buyer. This is the psychology of perception of the word or visual image, the patterns of the formation of purposeful associations, the technology of creating the appropriate mood, the formation of interest, the desire to purchase the advertised goods, etc. The specialist in advertising communications should take into account not only the needs, interests, value systems and installation of various target audiences, but also closely monitor the system of priorities within all these factors, closely monitor their changes that occur continuously.
An interest is a concentration of attention, colored by positive emotions, on something. The presence of interests is also a manifestation of the cognitive need and characteristic of the direction of the personality. Under the conditions of cognitive activity (and the activity of the consumer of advertising products is cognitive-evaluation), the content of interest can be enriched by mastering the connections of the objective world. Satisfaction of interest does not lead to its extinction, but causes new interests corresponding to a higher level of cognitive activity. Interest can grow into a stable personal need, an active attitude and inclination. There are immediate (due to the attractiveness of the object itself) and mediated (as a means of achieving goals).
Formation of interest:
o interest usually arises from what is closely related to the life of a person;
o to new knowledge or information that supplements already known data;
o interest arises and is supported by an unmet need;
o is manifested as a concentration of attention colored by positive emotions, which is followed by the reverse process.
Reasons for advertising:
In theory and practice of advertising, the motives for applying to advertising are called consumer ones.
Motive in psychology is called any psychic phenomenon, becoming a motivation for action, a purposeful activity. In this sense, the motives may be needs, interests, drives, emotions, psychological attitudes and ideals. The motive may be the perceived reason underlying the choice of actions and actions.
In specific applications, the following types of consumer motives are described:
- Utilitarian motives. They are certainly rational and arise, most likely, due to the actualization of material and subject needs and the need for security.
- Aesthetic motifs. These motifs are extremely emotional and are related to the actualization of the higher spiritual needs of the individual.
- Motives of prestige. They are rational-emotional and are formed due to the actualization of the need for respect and self-esteem, can also depend on the orientation towards social achievement.
- Motives for achieving, likening. They are also rationally emotional and, in essence, they are a kind of prestige motive, but they are more concrete in their manifestations, and often they can act as motives of fashion. Their psychological mechanisms are based on the eternal desire of people to imitate someone.
- Motives of tradition. They are based on psychological manifestations of cultural and historical determinants and are associated with the system of social needs of the individual, the basis of which are socio-psychological mechanisms of identification.
Psychological factors of desire formation.
Desire - this is a strong experience that reflects the idea of the possibility of something to have or to do something. The desire is always concrete and definite. The ways and means of satisfying the needs are realized and are already considered as fundamentally real. Desire is always brightly emotionally colored and has a great power-controlling behavior.
At the same time, a strong desire arises not immediately. At first it appears as a not very obvious attraction, as the object of desire concretises, it acquires a clear form and strength. It arises at the stage of comprehension of need, and the higher the awareness, the stronger the desire.
Thus, the power of desire is due to two important psychological causes: awareness of the need and fear that it will not be satisfied. This is exactly what the advertising effect is building: to cause a strong desire, satisfied only in one way - by purchasing the advertised product.
In various studies it was noted that a strong desire can arise under the influence of motives of prestige and likeness, which form in the personality certain status standards that influence the desire to be like someone.
The psychological focus of advertising is also determined by the phase of the product's life cycle. There are single-day goods and there are goods that are present on the market for decades, and even for centuries.
In the implementation phase, information is paramount. The next phase of the life of the product is fixation on the market. Here, the task of informing the audience is to convince the audience of certain merits of the product or service and the task of suggestion. In this case, advertising usually refers to the popularity of this product.
There are competitors. The task of advertising is to defend the conquered positions, to reflect directly or indirectly the attacks of competitors. At this phase, an arsenal of funds, called the "sales promotion", is connected to the advertisement. - funds that promote the further sale of goods: lotteries, competitions, free gifts, sales, etc.
Finally, the product is firmly grounded in the market. Now advertising to a certain extent reduces its turnover and goes into a stable mode of reminding of the existence of a popular product. This is also a very important period of advertising. The company Coca-Cola at one time reduced the reminding advertising and suffered significant losses.
Based on the tasks assigned, advertising for its psychological impact is divided consistently into such types.
1. Notifying (informing).
4. Reminding. Perception of advertising.
Advertising initially fights for attention. The word advertising comes from the Latin "reclamare - shout. Screaming to get attention. If advertising does not attract the attention of a potential buyer, it has not fulfilled its original function. The money spent on it is thrown to the wind.
Advertising should not only attract attention, but also ensure the perception of your appeal. Perception involves three interrelated processes.
1. Perception itself, or perception.
2. Understanding, or thinking (evaluative) activity.
3. Memorization, or mnemonic activity. Business ethics in advertising. Advertising is a powerful tool to influence society. This is a special social institution that directly influences the formation of public opinion (changing tastes and attachments to the manifestations of the external environment, attitudes toward various consumption products, forming new norms and behaviors, creating new traditions, destroying or creating moral foundations as a society as a whole, both individual and individual, in particular). This is due to the repeatability and obsession of advertising, its ability to influence the potential consumer in the mode of absorbing information, not only (and not so much) on a conscious, but also on a subconscious level, the issue of social responsibility gives particular urgency to the problem. All this confirms the fact that specialists working with advertising are obliged to take into account the social aspect of the influence of the messages they create.
The social responsibility of advertising is, first of all, the focus on observing legitimate established norms and rules of moral and ethical interaction between people accepted in a cultural society. To the core ethical principles can be attributed to the preservation and careful attitude to the native language, the creation of advertising, taking into account the social stratification of society, since there is a strong differentiation between rich and poor layers. The formation of an advertising product must be permeated with the spirit of tolerance of intercultural and interconfessional interaction.
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