A rare focus group aimed at developing a new product, does without a questionnaire survey of participants. There are other options when a questionnaire is useful for creating an innovation. Let's analyze the technique of the questionnaire. Objects of the questionnaire can be buyers (individuals), as well as officials in both companies that are regular customers of your organization, and in organizations that are potential customers. According to the method of communication between the researcher and the respondents, the questionnaire is divided into press, mail, distribution, and commercial (material on the use of the questionnaire on the Internet is given in a separate chapter). A press questionnaire consists of publishing a questionnaire on the pages of a journal or newspaper with an appeal to the reader to give a written response and return it by mail to the address indicated. When using a mail questionnaire, a corresponding number of questionnaires are sent to organizations and enterprises with a request to provide answers and return a questionnaire to the specified address by mail. The dispatch questionnaire consists in the questionnaire being distributed by the researcher to a group of people concentrated in one place, with a request to immediately fill in and return directly the completed questionnaires.
All types of questionnaires are suitable for researching the market for new high-tech products. Some types of questionnaires should be combined with the use of the catalog of manufactured or developed products.
The catalog (or other information material) is an essential element of a questionnaire when conducting market research. In order for a potential buyer to clearly articulate his need, it is necessary to clearly show what he can offer to achieve his goals.
Thus, the catalog is a document that gives the maximum information about the products produced and the potential capabilities of the organization to improve it. The catalog for new high-tech products practically does not differ from widely known consumer catalogs. It should contain the following main headings: the name and brand of the product, the purpose and scope of the innovation, the main technical and operational characteristics, the price of the product, the photograph of the product.
The dispatch questionnaire can be used at international industrial, scientific and technical exhibitions, conferences, symposiums, when many potential buyers of new science-intensive products gather in one place. To effectively use this type of questionnaire, the marketing service must constantly monitor information on the conduct of industrial and scientific and technical exhibitions, scientific conferences and other events of this kind. To conduct a survey for the exhibition (conference), a research team consisting of 2-3 people (preferably with the participation of the developer) should be sent. The catalog and the questionnaire are distributed at registration of participants of the conference or visitors of the exhibition with the request to fill in and return the questionnaire. The catalog remains with the participants of the exhibition (conference) and performs an advertising function (for this purpose, the catalogs must be issued in sufficient quantity), thus, during the time of the exhibition (conference), you can collect the necessary material. The dispatch questionnaire provides the greatest return (92-98%). However, the distribution questionnaire has its drawbacks. It can not be very voluminous and detailed and should contain only such questions that the respondent can answer without any special consultations. To increase the interest of respondents in completing the questionnaire, various forms of incentives can be used: from souvenirs and prospectuses to discounts in case of purchasing the organization's products.
The press questionnaire should mainly be published in commercial, scientific and technical journals, newspapers, which are used by potential consumers of new knowledge-intensive products. In this case, instead of the catalog, the journal publishes information about one promising sample (or a small group of products) and a list of questions concerning the need for this innovation. The information and the questionnaire in the journal should be placed in such a way that the respondent can pull them out of the magazine without affecting the rest of the information contained in the journal. The return period for answers to a press questionnaire can be determined in 1-2 months and then immediately begin processing the answers, remember that the share of returned press questionnaires is about 5%.
The mailing questionnaire is sent to potential buyers along with the catalog. To ensure the maximum return of questionnaires, special attention must be paid to, first, the creation of the respondent's motivation to answer questions and, secondly, to facilitate the return of the questionnaire as much as possible, for example, to attach an envelope for return with an address and postage stamp. It is also recommended to send one or two reminders - calls to return completed questionnaires. On average, 30% of postal questionnaires are returned.
A symbiosis of the distribution and postal questionnaire (a sales questionnaire) is possible if your organization is interested in the opinion of customers about your company's products. In this case, the questionnaire gets to the respondent together with the purchased products (enclosed in the package). The questionnaire contains a request to complete it and send it to the address indicated.
In short, we will open technology for the development of questionnaires. The structure of the questionnaire looks like this: the image element, the appeal, the preamble, the business questionnaire, the lens.
It is useful to start the questionnaire with the company logo, brand slogan or some quote related to the subject of the survey.
In the questionnaire, it is important to properly apply to the respondent. Depending on the nature of the interviewed audience, different treatment options may be appropriate. It is also important to take into account the national specifics in international surveys.
The purpose of the survey should be outlined in the preamble and full explanations on the order of filling in the questionnaire are given. In the work field, questions are concentrated, the answers to which are the purpose of the survey. Objectively designed to provide the necessary socio-demographic information about the interviewee.
All questions and statements included in the questionnaire should be interpreted by all respondents in the same way. The formulation of the questions should support the respondent's motivation to give the researcher's information. All questions of the questionnaire should be sustained in a respectful manner to the respondent tone.
The respondent should see in the fact of filling in the questionnaire a step in solving his problems. In order to improve the results of the survey, it is advisable to include question-filters and control questions in the questionnaire. So, before asking a questioner a meaningful question, it is advisable to find out whether he refers to the group of people for whom this question is intended.
To check the validity of the data, control questions are used. These may be questions, answers to which are known in advance. If an incorrect answer is given, this may cause the questionnaire to be rejected.
A number of special methods are used to formulate and post questions of the questionnaire. In particular, the rule "funnels". According to this rule, the simplest questions are placed at the beginning and end of the questionnaire (for example, the lens is most often placed at the end). The most important and complex questions are placed in the middle of the questionnaire. To construct closed questions use different scaling tools: the Likert scale, the semantic differential, the method of pairwise comparisons.
The Likert Scale prompts the respondent to indicate the extent of his or her agreement or disagreement with a number of statements relating to the relationship to the object. To obtain an overall rating, this respondent summarizes the scores for individual elements. The Likert scale consists of two parts - the subject and evaluation. Subject - a list of statements regarding the product. All statements must relate to one aspect of the product. An evaluation is a list of answer categories that vary from completely agree to completely disagree & quot ;.
Semantic differential. Respondents are asked to evaluate an object (for example, a new product) on several ordinal scales (signs). At the edges of each scale are adjectives or phrases with opposite meanings (antonyms). Each scale is considered as interval (between the antonyms points are indicated, for example 5, 4, 3, 2, 1). Then, the scores that the respondent presents for each of the characteristics are summarized. In some scales based on the semantic differential, you can choose only the extreme values (the index of buying moods, the index of business optimism). Stapel's scales are a kind of semantic differential. As antonyms, single adjectives are used.
The method of pairwise comparisons. Objects (for example, variants of the brand name for a new product) that you need to evaluate are presented to respondents in pairs, so that each object is compared to all the others. When analyzing each pair of respondents, they are asked to divide 10 points between the objects. The basis for the distribution is the extent to which they like each of the objects. Then the number of points received by each of the objects (brands) is summarized. Other methods are also used.
Closing questions requires the following basic requirements:
1. It is required to provide possible variants of answers as much as possible.
2. Formulating options for answers, remember the rules:
• answering the question often chooses the first clues, rarely - the subsequent ones; the first rule is that the least likely answers should be the first;
• the longer the prompt, the less likely it is; the second rule is that hints should be approximately equal in length;
• the more general the clue is, the less likely it is; the third rule - all variants of the answer should be maintained at one level of concreteness.
3. You can not combine several slots in one phrase.
4. All variants of answers should be printed on one page.
5. You can not print the entire series of positive prompts for answers in succession and then - a series of negative or vice versa.
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