Segmentation of the market, selection of target segments. Positioning
After studying the material of the chapter, the student must:
• problems, methods, techniques of segmentation and positioning;
• Target market strategies;
be able to
• make marketing decisions in the target market of the enterprise;
• The main procedures and methods for selecting target markets, segmentation and positioning.
In the literature on economics, the target market and the target segment, the separation of which is considered to be the leading goal of segmenting the market, have the following interpretations. Target market refers to the company's potential market, defined by the totality of people who have:
1) Similar needs in relation to a specific product or service;
2) sufficient resources;
3) willingness and ability to buy.
Thus, market segmentation is defined as an activity aimed at identifying potential groups of buyers of a specific product of an organization or enterprise.
In order to conduct a successful segmentation of the market, it makes sense to apply the five principles tested by practice (the differences between segments, the similarities of consumers, the size of the segment, the measurability of consumer characteristics, the availability of consumers).
The meaning of the difference principle is that when carrying out segmentation, you need to get different groups of customers. Otherwise, segmentation will almost certainly be replaced by mass marketing.
The principle of similarity of buyers within a segment assumes the homogeneity of potential consumers from the point of view of the buyer's attitude to a certain commodity. The similarity of consumers makes it possible to develop a marketing plan for the entire target segment.
The principle of significant size of the segment provides for the formation of sufficiently large target segments to ensure sales and cover the costs of the company. Estimating the size of the segment, it is necessary to take into account both the nature of the goods sold and the capacity of the potential market. For example, in the consumer market, the number of buyers in the segment can be measured even by tens of thousands, while in the industrial market a large segment includes fewer than a hundred possible consumers (for consumers of engineering products, for satellite communication systems, etc.).
The principle of measurability of characteristics of consumers ensures the effectiveness of targeted field marketing research that allows you to identify the needs of potential buyers, to study the reaction of the target market to ts or other marketing activities of the company. This principle is very important, because the distribution of the product "blindly", without feedback from customers, can lead to negative consequences, such as dispersal of the means, labor and intellectual resources of the seller.
According to the principle of consumer access communication channels of the seller are needed with possible consumers (magazines, newspapers, radio, television, outdoor advertising). Reachability of consumers is required to organize promotions of goods or services, inform potential buyers about a product (its specifics, main advantages, cost, anticipated sales, etc.).
The basis of the market segmentation process, along with the application of the principles of segmentation, is the motivated choice of the appropriate segmentation method.
The most common methods of segmentation of the market include the grouping method for one or more features, as well as methods for multidimensional statistical analysis.
Grouping method - is a sequential breakdown of a set of objects into groups according to the most significant characteristics, one of which stands out as a system-forming criterion (the owner of the product, the consumer planning to purchase the goods). Subsequently, subgroups are formed, in which the significance of the criterion is much higher than for the whole set of possible consumers of a particular product. Consistently dividing the sample into two parts, divide it into subgroups.
To carry out segmentation, use the multidimensional classification methods. In this case, the division goes on the whole complex of analyzed features simultaneously. The most effective are the methods of automatic classification (cluster analysis), when one class combines consumers that are similar in a number of ways. The degree of similarity in those consumers who belong to the same class should be higher than the degree of similarity among buyers belonging to different classes.
This method solves, for example, the problem of typing with simultaneous use of socio-economic, demographic and psychographic indicators. An example is the solution of the problem of segmentation of the market through the construction of a typology of consumers (the division of consumers into typical groups for which the same or similar consumer behavior is characteristic). The construction of a typology means the process of splitting the studied set of objects into groups that are fairly homogeneous in composition and stable in time and space.
Quite homogeneous groups (classes) of consumers with characteristic type of consumer behavior for each of them objectively exist. The methods of multidimensional statistics make it possible to isolate and analyze such groups.
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