Self research criterion and sub ethnic groups

In this task, I have tried to answer the designated questions with reason. Several online documents and catalogs are being used as guide to make reference to the subject subject. This project has given me an possibility to probe in to the matter deeply. This task contains detail explanation on the subject matter: self-reference criterion and importance of foreign sub social groups. This good article discusses the negative and positive effect of the issues on marketing plan. It explains what can and cannot happen when marketers neglect or highlight on these matters while thinking of introducing their products to other countries. Some real life good examples are also provided in the writing to make the justification more clear.


Self-reference criterion and sub ethnical groupings are two significant aspects of to be looked at while making marketing plan. It is vital to learn the consumer preferences and buy intensions before proposing new products to them. The potency of the current advertising campaign also depends on marketer's understanding of the marketplaces and the leads. Self-reference criterion is the assumption that products can be efficiently put on the overseas market depending on its achievement in domestic market. Once we read the following sections, we will have that this idea is not right alternatively it is an obstacle for the business enterprise organizations that blueprints to enter in international markets for the very first time. It really is more important to comprehend the sub social characteristics of the international market meticulously before coming into in it. Marketers should understand the self-reference criterion avoid putting it on and concentrate learning the sub ethnic characteristics in planning international markets.

Question A

Explain the idea of 'self guide criterion' and illustrate its importance to a marketing firm planning to type in the international markets for the very first time.


A subject to represent himself, herself, or itself uses 'Self-reference'. It really is some sort of thought expressed by the pronoun, the word "I" in English. Self-reference criterion is an identical strategy. Self-reference criterion (SRC) is a concept that discusses the situation where a company tries to market products to another country using the same values, action, and considering the same situation, as he found in his own country. The self-reference criterion is the trend of a person to utilize the key points and values of your respective own culture to judge others. For instance American may notice more traditional societies to be "backward" and "unmotivated" because they often cannot produce the version of new technologies or social customs and instead choose to stick to the original values.

Generally, when an individual put in a predicament, just how s/he responds is associated with his/her culture. When organizations take their procedures internationally, working a different ethnical environment is evident. At these situations, self-reference behaviour may well not be the right behaviour from the viewpoint of the prospective culture. Hence, comprehensive understanding and realization of social differences and likelihood is very important in case there is international marketing. Since domestically ethnical differences are slight, SRC is not necessary in local marketing. For instance, in Bangladesh, there is a difference between the culture of rural people and metropolitan people but a larger cultural difference is present between Bangladesh and America. The top issue is to know how these biases may come in the manner in working with users of other civilizations.

Ethnocentrism is another term very much like self-reference criterion. It means the trend of observing one's culture superior to others. Normally there's a propensity of outsiders to a culture to exaggerate the similarity of users of that culture to one another. Ethnocentrism occurs generally when managers from affluent countries use managers and markets in less affluent countries. SRC and ethnocentrism are both hindrance in the form of accomplishment to success. Among the barriers in being successful in the international market are someone's self-reference criterion (SRC) and an associated ethnocentrism. While SRC is an unconscious mention of one's own ethnic values, experience, and knowledge but it is intimately related to ethnocentrism.

From our birth to being adult a set of facts, values, norms, ideas and ethics are cultivated inside us. Our behavior, thoughts and reaction (both voluntary and involuntary) are inspired by our cultural education. Whenever we are stuck in times or face a problem, we make reference to our SRC searching for the answer. Our response and decisions are based on meanings, values, icons and behaviour relevant to our very own culture; different from overseas culture. Any decisions taken from own cultural point of view is right until it is ideal for domestic purpose. Whenever we mix with folks of another culture, intentionally or inadvertently, a gap is generated or even to be better said maintained. This space usually brings about a misunderstanding between people of different ethnicities. Only way to avoid or get out of such misunderstandings is to develop the power of acceptance of understanding, behaving and pondering like the person we are talking to.

The key to successful marketing is to simply accept the environmental variations between each market. The behavior structure of consumers of any market won't match with that of the consumers of another market exactly. Even though some similarities might exit but for a firm, in order to enter a new market and position itself effectively it is vital to understand the characteristics of the market and design the offerings. For an international marketer, version is a conscious effort to predict the factors that impact the marketing combination and plan the marketing blend to minimize the effects. Two examples : the term "Pet" in pet milk. This name has been used many years, but in France the word Dog or cat means, among other activities, flatulence again, which is not right image for canned dairy. Esso, the brand name of a gas, was an effective name in america; however, in Japan the name phonetically means stalled car an unhealthy image for gasoline. These two good examples were real blunders created by the major companies firing from reliance on the SRC in making decision. Thus for international marketing, counting on one's SRC is not good idea as it contributes to failure.

The evaluation of market needs can be impeded by one's own ethnical experience. Lee (1965) advised a way, to systemically reduce this perception. He recommended a four-point approach.

To define the challenge or goal in conditions home country's persona, lifestyle and norms.

To define the problem or goal in terms of the international persona, lifestyle and norms.

Separate the effect of SRC in the problem and scrutinize it carefully to see how it completes the pattern

Redefine the condition without the effect of SRC and discover a remedy for the international market situation.

The negative strategy of this methodology is the fact that culture may be hidden or non-apparent. Concealed factors in b) may be difficult. Nonetheless, the strategy gives beneficial guidelines for the need of standardization or adaptation in marketing planning.

SRC Product Effect Matrix

It is obvious from previous discussion that whenever this can be a question of globalizing a product there must be some space for adaption in the marketing plan and decisions regarding foreign cultures. SRC product matrix is a straightforward guideline that helps to bear in mind the steps to analysis one's local ethnic expectation and put this in comparison with the admired international ethnic market in terms of primary features, geographic and societal affect.

Initial step to comprehend market is to recognize the client needs, desire etc. At the same time, the marketer should also look for the public and geographical important factors that can affect a market. However, the factors determined domestically will vary form international factors. Usually while on international business, a firm cannot satisfy a complete country rather they chose physical models such as countries, states, regions, places or neighbourhoods. For instance, Hilton Hotels customizes rooms and lobbies relating to location. Kmart allow local professionals to stock products that suit the neighborhood community. Geographical factors also includes city or metro size, density, climate etc. Sociable factors that can affect international marketing are naming value system, colors, language etc. As for instance, French interconnection UK is a British retailer of clothing and accessories in many parts of the world. That is a business of Great britain, founded in 1992. They may have styled their name is "FCUK". French connection UK when went to Singapore and California could not succeed there. The reason was that their styled name "FCUK" has resemblance to a slang expression and so had not been accepted by the people of Singapore and California.

A market analyst's review in regards to a market provides out some recognized newness or triggers for obstacles on the market. His SRC may be biased when interpreting the characteristics of a product. He should assess product characteristics from the international user's framework of reference rather than his own frame of reference, which can lead to misinterpretation of the merchandise cultural importance. Therefore, to go into a global market for the very first time, a marketing expert should avoid self-reference criterion and try to understand the behaviour of the overseas market from the foreign cultural viewpoint.

Question B

Why should the international marketer know about sub cultural groups when wanting to segment marketplaces in a specific country or region?


As described by Kotler "Culture is the fundamental determinant of someone's wishes and behaviours". Through the birth and at the level of growing we face values like achievements and success, activity, efficiency and practicality, progress, material comfort, individualism, liberty, exterior comfort, humanitarianism, and youthfulness. Culture creates connection between a teams of folks who shares a community. It really is a style of mankind. Culture styles people's life and symbolizes their moral value. The various culture on the globe brought variations with techniques of living style and standard. Sometimes mixtures of various civilizations are also seen. For example people in Bangladesh have brought changes in their dress style by following western fashions like girls putting on T-shirts and jeans, teenager agers having too much of junk food. Marketers must attentively look into the cultural values in every country to understand the success of their existing product in new markets and discover opportunities for services.

Subcultures are part of civilizations offering more precise recognition and social identification for their customers. Subcultures consist of nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic locations. If a subculture is large and prosperous enough, organizations, marketers consider it as a separate portion and designs specialised marketing programs to provide them. Quite simply, subculture is a cluster of like-minded individuals who have separate acknowledgement in the culture. Subculture is also defined as "Distinctive group of people in a contemporary society that share common ethnical meanings for affective and cognitive reactions, behaviour, and environmental factors.

For example: get older, religion, ethnicity, and geographic. Subculture is ambiguous and lends itself to different interpretations. For marketing purposes, "a subculture may be described as any ethnic patterning that preserves important features of the dominant population but provides principles and life-style of its own".

Subcultures are more complex part of your society and must be watched carefully with a marketer who hopes to serve a specific folks of same behaviour structure. For example Black colored subculture is: women brain the majority of the young families, they influences buys, and they're deprived of income, and have educational limitations. This gives the blacks different attitudes than whites towards product choice, brand selection and spending criterion.

For marketers or market, experts understanding sub social segment whether domestic or international is important as it gives them an opportunity to think of market segment separately. It might help them creating a new market. They can use emphasis or differentiation strategy to be able to fulfill the sub-cultural section. They can offer products with special features, styles, colour, and sizes along with taking care of their income and spending ability. This can stretch competition in the market appearing as a solid rival in the eye of business rivals. By portion sub-cultural segment, a firm can influence its market setting.

Marketers use various demographic characteristics to identify subcultures; for example

Demographic Characteristics

Examples of subcultures


Adolescents, ADULTS, Midsection Aged, Elderly


Jewish, Catholic, Mormon, Buddhist, Muslim


Black, Caucasian, Asian

Income level

Affluent, Middle Income, Poor, Destitute


French, Malaysian, Australian, Canadian


Female, Male

Family type

Single Mother or father, Divorced/No Kids, Two Parents/Kids


Mechanic, Accountant, Priest, Professor, Clerk

Geographic region

New Britain, Southwest, Midwest


Rural, Small Town, Suburb, City

For mass marketing purposes religious subcultures aren't usually cared for as important sections. But those who market exclusively to religious segments are often quite successful.

It is usually seen, that folks of an country are always drawn to foreign products. Nations of producing countries have notion that overseas products are usually more reliable, full of quality and the packaging of such products is commonly more attractive. This is an edge for overseas companies. To be able to maintain this perception of folks it is essential for the marketers to probe in to the cultural aspects of the country they would like to enter in. Marketers need to determine the right marketplace for his or her product/service. After they find out the people's desire and know very well what is right for this society and what are the likings and disliking of the potential customer, they help formulate a highly effective 4P's for a firm. For example, in today's date, in Bangladesh Chinese handsets are enjoying on the market. Most of the users will be the low school people (amounting a large number) who acquired a latent demand of additional features like camera, two times sim, and touch screen, wide display screen etc in their mobile phones. Usually, mobile phones having these features were very expensive. Chinese handset companies added this features, offered the phone an attractive look and the most crucial thing, charges price affordable by low-income people. The low segment felt their dream come true and accepted the product with almost all their heart. The simple truth is because of its attractive, smart look even wealthy people also like the merchandise. Chinese handsets like Sprint, Symphony, Green, Noka, Nokla, Maximus, Bluetooth etc are now competing with Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericson etc in Bangladesh. Low section usually constitute a sizable market in developing countries. If this portion is targeted and can be recognized properly, it can lead to huge profit for just about any organization.

Segmentation leads to be fruitful only if the correct segment is chosen. The chosen portion has to be measurable in terms of market size, considerable, accessible, and differentiable. Understanding the sub culture is not only important for product design but also to identify the promotional tools, arrange the communication to be sent to the customers and how it is to be done i. e. selection of the media, find out the distribution outlets. Promoting something in the shed of local cultures of where in fact the product is usually to be sold attracts the client emotionally. A sense that "yes, the business is thinking about us very seriously" gives the customer a mental satisfaction plus they reward the business with purchasing the product.

Customers are psychological and sensitive to cultural and sub-cultural issues. To win customers faith companies should never neglect their (customers') beliefs, norms and worth. Organizations should remember that once they enter customers' brain with a good image they'll always reside in customer's heart.


From these discussion, we received a definite idea about the two vital issues of marketing: 'Self-reference criterion' (SRC) and 'sub social categories'. Both of the themes are sensitive concern for the marketers while planning the marketplace. It isn't always appropriate to judge one's behaviour from own perspective. An organization wanting to cross its own country boundary should be culturally open. SRC can create hindrance in the way of victory of an organization internationally whereas understanding the sub cultural features can make a business stay in the heart of people abroad.

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)