For the past few years, the market in the globalization world is getting tighter. This is also affecting the economy progress in the food industry. Therefore, to be able survive in the industry, maximising income through reselling product become every company's priority. To be able to achieve that goal, a company have to be able to understand consumer purchase decision especially based on a food presentation.
The process evaluating of several choices created by a consumer prior making a purchase is called buying decision. This purchase decision is a intricate act where there are a great number of internal and exterior factors that impact it. Among the factor will be the way the packaging of something have the ability to communicate and entice the consumers.
Every customer has another type of concept on how they look, buy and use something. However, the first thing that will have an effect on their buying decision will be its packaging. To almost all of the people, packaging is the fundamental item that the main purpose is to protect food product from any unsafe elements. However the primary reason for the presentation has transformed, as it appears to be one of the primary factors of buying decision made at the selling point (Prendergast and Pitt, 1996). Therefore, a good product packaging will help to market the merchandise and boost the feature.
Visual program elements help to represent the brand and the merchandise itself; however there are a lot of factors that could affect it. The few factors included the look, type of material used, colour and visual used, and molded of the presentation.
Objective of this study is to see the affect of the elements that containts in the presentation. There are 4 elements that can be categorize into to. These are Aesthetic and Information category. In each category there are 2 elements. In Aesthetic category there are color and visual, shape and size. Where on the info catergory there are technology (material) information and product information. This research seeks to consider which of these criterias affect the buyer most. To simplify the work, modified from Hasanglipour, Yazdani, Nejad and Rayej (2010), a platform is created because of this research.
Color and Graphic
Shape and Size
H1. Visual Components of the package impact selection of the product
H1a. Common color and graphic is more attractive compare to flashy design
H1b. Addition of an image of the merchandise on the offer significantly influence attention of the product.
H1c. Visually bigger package significantly influence consumer decision
H1d. Cylindrical presentation is more attractive
H2. Informational Components of the packaging effect choice of the product
H2a. Packaging with clear, cool, organized and
easy to read information significantly effect perception of the product quality
H2b. Material used for the product packaging affects customer decision
Information generated out of this research predicated on the hypothesis, should provide marketers with a larger knowledge of the package's potential to connect and the nature of its results on consumer attention and product choice.
Potato Chips and Packaging
Potato chips are profound fried thin pieces potato. It really is a savoury food that usually served as an appetizer, snack or side dish. Potato chips first was dicovered at 1853 by George Crum, a chef in Moon Lake House at New York. Crump was flustered by the clients that keep mailing back his fried potatoes complaining these were too thick and soggy, then decided to cut the potatoes as slender as paper. The potatoes was fried until sharp and seasoned it with salt vigorously. Unexpectedly, the diner was delighted by the new chips and it soon became a normal item sold on the menu and known as "Saratoga Chips".
In 1895, William Tappendon used the potato chips' manufacture and marketing it to restaurants and grocery shops. Due to popular, he altered his barn into the first potato-chips manufacturing plant on the globe. The chips were sold to local grocers in Cleveland, Ohio, and since then massive production of chips began on the move.
Early in 20th century, poker chips were turning out to be huge bussiness in the us. At the begining, potato chips were scooped out from large bins or barrel in the grocery stores, packed in a paper bag and supplied by equine and wagon. However, the chips in the bottom of the bin were no longer crispy by the time the outlets sold them. To resolve the problem, in 1926, Laura Scudder innovated a covered handbag. She asked her staff to take home bedding of wax paper to iron waxed-paper sheets in to the shape of tote and iron-seal the most notable of the handbags after filling up it along with chips the next day. This technique reduced the crumbling problem and it held the chips fresh and clean longer. The mobilisation of the chips were easier because of its new packaging. The bussiness expanded from U. S. A, and potato chips began to be known in London. In 1920, Smith Potato Crips Company Ltd was shaped. Smith packed them in greaseproof newspaper hand bags and sold them around London. In just a year, the company expanded and migrated to Australia to increase his business. Today, potato chips become a mass market product and are packed in a plastic material luggage, with nitrogen gas blown in prior to closing and lengthen the shelf life preventing it against any crushing during the distribution.
Function of Packaging and buy Decision
As Prendergast and Pitt (1996) points out that the basic functions of product packaging is described by their role in either logistic or marketing. To preserve food product for an extended shelf life by safeguarding the food product from exterior affects such as weather, bacteriological and transit risks which can cause destruction (Stewart, 1995; Bottani et al. , 2011) is the logistical function of presentation. On the other hand, in the marketing role, presentation takes on as an attribute to present the whole product and get consumer at the idea of sales. Pilditch in 1957 is the first who define load up as the "Silent Salesman" that's the reason the pack need to be lively in conditions of selling point. Thus, to entice and communicate with the client through product packaging, a good quality and best design to represent the brand need to be done. You won't only help to develop the relationship to the customers through marketing part, it will help protect the meals product from any contamination during or following the distribution programs.
Indeed, a logistic reason for the packaging work is one of the main element idea identified by the client. To make sure the availability of the "right product, in the right volume, in the right condition, in the right place, at the right time, to the right customer, at the right price" (Shapiro and Heskett, 1985). As consumer always expect for the best from what they spend their money on; in terms of hygiene and quality control where there is no spoilage or leakage in the program that will have an impact on the goods. This quality must be maintained in order to garner customer's trust into the product's cleanliness and quality. As there is absolutely no guarantee that consumer may not get any food poisoning from a food product that still in the offer. For example, whenever a customer viewed the food rack in a supermarket, they have a tendency to buy product that has more convincing appearance and information to the HACCP method (hygiene purposes) and there is absolutely no spoilage in the offer.
Aside from logistic factors, there is absolutely no way that presentation could run from its work as a marketing consultancy. A study done to children and their parents which resulted that product packaging is indeed have a solid effect on children's product inclination and parents' purchase decision (Ogba and Johnson, 2010). Silayoi and Speece (2004) stregthen the statement with their conclusions that visible and informational elements effect purchase decision on something. Thus, to be able to make sure their product sticks out from others, normally marketers use attractive visible imagery, recognisable identity, color and design (Ogba and Johnson, 2010). Even some of the consumers seen their shopping trip as a "leisure activity", it is proved by some of the academics that mentioned shopping has become "a major recreational and a lifestyle activity" (Wells et al. , 2007 ;Bayley and Nancarrow, 1998). Generally, consumers spend longer time while searching for the item they looked for. Due to the fact the fact of higher possibility of choosing the incorrect item due to carelessness, which lead to dissapointment and disastisfaction.
A food company has responsibility for the planning of advancement strategy in designing a food product packaging as its professional. As packaging talks one thousand words about the product in the customer's eye, an in depth and appropriate design of a product packaging have to be designed which will straight away get customer at the first look. It really is a simple decision for a corporation to have an in-depth knowledge of more than just customer's needs and desires ( Vernuccio and Cozzolino, 2010) before and making the package. To provide the exact meaning and image of the merchandise to the client, it depends upon how all the elements mix together, which become the key success for many marketing strategies ( Silayoi and Speece, 2004).
Kupiec and Revell (2001) possessed done a study which resulted that consumer objective to purchase will depend to the degree to which consumer expect that the merchandise could meet their needs. However, there is a study that shows 73 percents of purchase decision are created at the point of sales (Connolly and Davidson, 1996). This shows that the purchase decision is determined by what the package communicate at the selling point. The program becomes an essential factor in the customer decision-making process due to the fact it communicates to consumer at the time they are actually deciding in the store. Quality common sense is highly affected by the characteristic that the bundle reflected. The package reflected a tangible and intangible message about the product. It illustrates the product's originality and uniqueness. Since consumer shoot for a good quality of a product, one will expect to find the same quality towards something, judged from its package's quality. Underwood et al. (2001) suggest that consumer will spontaneously imagine areas of how a product looks, likes, seems, smells, or may seem while they are simply viewing a product picture on the deal.
Graphics and color
In everyday activity, human being in their character seeks harmony and resolution. Utilizing the five senses, individual perceive and nevigate an thing. The exact same theory is applied on how buyer perceive and get around something through its product packaging. Thus, visual and color of the packaging plays an important role on affecting customer's alternatives.
According to Oxford dictionary, graphic is defined as a visual presentation linked with drawings and design on some surface, such as canvas, newspaper, wall membrane, etc. Quoted from Evans and Thomas (2004) that "graphical design is the fine art of planning pictographic and typographic elements to make effective communication". Which in packaging, it is to ensure its elegance, at the same time to differentiate and to give a clear and comprehensive identity of the merchandise. For instance, a product package may contain a logo, image design, color harmony, word structure, and product photography which unite the part into a presentable presentation.
Each of the elements within the graphic design has its individual function that influences customer's understanding towards a product. Firstly, emblem in a packaging helps to represent and identify the business of the product. It helps to give a certain impression towards an item which helps customer to recognize it directly. Custom logo comes in all kind of styles and size. It could be within form of word-marks, letterform, markings, symbols, emblems, ect. Because of this, the symbol (brand) has to be created in a manner that universally comprehended, and easily recognizable.
Secondly, typography is the artwork process of establishing, arranging, design and appearance of one or more fonts into an element of writing (Really good packaging discussed). The main function of typography is to deliver a message to the comprehension of the readers to whom it is resolved ( Heller and Meggs, 2001). The buyer is the main one being addressed in this case. Relating to Heller and Meggs (2001) there may be high probability of the customer not in particularly thinking about the note. Thus, to ensure the message delivered properly to the client, it's important to create the easiest and easiest to read typography.
Third, product picture taking is actually an advertising image of the merchandise itself. Every professional of goods needs to make the general public aware of the product being offered on the market. In order to convey the visual component of the meaning, thus the image shown in the product packaging. The existence of the merchandise picture taking has been turned out to improve the probability that a purchaser will utilize it as an extrinsic cue (Olsen & Jacoby, 1972) and since an indicator of the merchandise quality (Richardson, 1994). Product picture taking and image design are associated with each other. Image layout is the way the overall design and design of the image and other visual components blend along on the product packaging. The positioning of the product's picture and other graphic elements over a package may make the difference between identifying and lacking the item (Herrington and Capella, 1995). Rettie and Brewer (2000) performed a psychology research that your recall of package deal elements is affected by the set up and positioning of the elements on the bundle. A research done by Silayoi and Speece (2004) point out that the position of image on the right palm aspect and product home elevators the left hands side is more effective to help Thailand customer (Asia) to remember something.
Last but not least, color is one of the primary components that is highly noticable. Color play an important role about how it affect the purchaser conception towards a product. Color gives information and images consciousness on something. It is important for the professionals (e. g. graphic designer) to determine possible color options for a product's packaging and always keep in mind on how it'll affect the consumer.
In product packaging, different color has different interpretation and could evoke various sense and sentiment in consumer. It is belived that color has progressed and it speaks its own dialect- with symbolic, social and psychological so this means (Evans and Thomas, 2004). There is discussion by Imran (1999) how color could impact quality understanding and Grossman and Wisenblit (1999) mentioned that customer also learn color associations, which leads them to like certain color for certain product categories. For example, orange color stimulates desire for food feelings, and it could stand for a products flavour such as orange flavoured candy. However, retain in mind that all person has different understanding towards an idea of what they recognized.
There was mindset research resulted that customer understanding is inspired by how the brain evaluate the elements in product packaging design (Rettie and Brewer, 2000), it's important for the marketing expert purposely developed the image created in the product packaging to communicate and present a strong effect on consumer decision making process. A study done by Silayoi and Speece (2004) resulted that poor graphical design can cause loses in sales for many consumer compare to attractive design. This shows that poor graphic has no capacity to captivate the client at the point of sales, which lead to poor sales.
There are a few categories of graphic design, such as classic design and colorful design. Basic design is the design that is used almost everywhere in their field through ongoing and successful technical or design technology. It really is recognizable and regularly use in the packaging. Alternatively, colorful packaging is a new innovation and technical is employed in building the product packaging. However, a investigated done in Thailand by Silayoi and Speece (2004) resulted that the shoppers prefer to have a typical design on packaging compare to brilliant design. The respondents presumed that common design is more reliable and familiar, which is more convincing.
Different folks have various ways in responding towards different packaging. Especially during the analysis of low engagement product; which really is a daily used product that is purchased with lowest thought onto it. Because of this, graphic and color play a crucial point in the decision making process as it is the most recognizable factors in the product packaging (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999).
Shape and Size
Packaging outer form and level affects customer common sense and decision on buying a certain product. Relating to Silayoi and Speece (2004), buyer judge a product's volume based on its outer aesthetic. In this case, outer visual in packaging is interms of its size, shape and elongation.
According to Evans and Thomas (2008), how big is a product determines the physical areas of the presentation; which involves width, span and height. Many of these aspects is normally term as size. Nevertheless, period is the most dominant from all the aspects. Raghubir and Krishna (1999) experienced done a studies, which resulted the elongation of any packaging has an optimistic effect on volume perception.
Prendergast and Marr (1997) explained that the larger package refflects less expensive of the merchandise. Especially, as it pertains on judging unbranded product or low involvement items, the larger packaged tended to be chosen. A participant in qualitative researched by Silayoi and Speece (2004) stated that " bigger deals was bought usually as he/she thought it might be affordability. But he/she would only consider the food products".
Purchaser have a tendency to believe that the taller the product packaging, the larger the volume. Although, the true content has been mentioned on the presentation, there is probability of the customer might not read the label (Dickson and Sawyer, 1986; Raghubir and Krishna, 1999). Under certain circumstances, such as under time pressure, the likelihood of purchaser will not read the label is higher. This might lead to dissatisfaction, because of the fact that the genuine content is not as much as expected through the presentation size. As the buyer tend to feel being deceived by the inconsistency of size, this may impact their future purchase decision.
However, there's some customers are not damaged by the disconfirmation of offer size experience. Although, they recognize that the actual quantity is less than what it is being shown by the dimension of the packaging, it may not lead consumer to change their purchase decision. They will tend to be more careful and read the label on the presentation. In addition, if the inconsistency of size is not so large, it may not have an effect on consumer to revise their amount wisdom in the long-term (Raghubir and Krishna, 1999; Silayoi and Speece, 2007).
Other than size, shape of the product packaging also plays an important role on influencing consumer's purchase decision. Certain package deal shapes might stand for a double-win situation, that is, they might be much more likely to be chosen because they are recognized to be bigger, and they also may be consumed faster (Raghubir and Krishna, 1999). Besides that, packaging shapes are now included as part of the brand image. Few examples of famous packaging designs will be the Coca-Cola container, Toblerone's triangular form, Perrier container, Pringles canistar cylindrical condition, etc. These unique presentation shapes are found more attractive compare to regular packaging. A studies done by Gelperowic and Beharrell (1994) on several children reported that children preferred to try and attracted by packaging shapes. In contrary, Silayoi and Speece (2007) completed a conjoint evaluation way on Thai consumer, to look for the shape desire for packaging between curvy or in a straight line shape. Through concentration groups they discovered that Thai consumers preferred right shape compared to curvy. This exhibited that, overall the members might become more interested to a presentation that looks normal which gives a trusted and familiar feeling.
Other than using unique shape to attract customer, purchaser also recognized size and shape for its usability. It is important to create a convenient and easy to carry packaging. Packaging's form and size is design depending on its usage and target market. For example, corresponding to www. smeda. org. pk (2006), poker chips are targeted for children, young adults and young people. Because of the fact that the prospective market are teenagers and usually consume potato chips for leisure and recreation, a unique yet convenient product packaging is needed to attract the purchasers. You will find 2 types of famous packaging that are being used to packed potato chips on the market; they are totes product packaging (by Lay's) and canister cylindrical presentation (by Pringles). However, for carriers shaped packaging, there may be high likelihood on getting the poker chips smashed. Therefore, clylindrical package will be more convenient and it could prevent from any harm.
The purpose of product packaging is to guarding food from external influences that could affect the grade of the product. In regards to this matter, choosing the right materials and systems for a certain product allows retaining quality and freshness during the distribution and storage space system (Martinez et al. , 1998; Bottani et al. , 2011).
There are many kind of materials, they may be: material, aluminium, glass, newspaper, paperboard, tetra-brick, polystyrene, tin, flexible motion pictures, polystyrene, plastics, etc
Packaging technology is the development of further purpose of the packaging. For instance: vacuum, sterilization, pasteurization, preserving fluid, thermal safeguard, aseptic product packaging, etc.
The evolutions of technology in finalizing different type of materials have provided an chance to improve food product packaging and its own function. The development for packaging is influenced by the existing craze of consumer behaviour and products (Silayoi and Speece, 2007). Whereby, the technology found in the package comes with an impact on convenience and could improve the product's shelf life. For example, working customer usually tend to look for microwaved food, which is far more convenient. For this reason, packaging materials that is used, need to be compatible with the food preparation. The materials can be produced of aluminium or plastic that is heat-resistant. The technology of packaging has to meet customer criteria
For potato chips presentation, there are few materials that are usually used, they are simply plastic, aluminium, adaptable film, tin and paperboard. It really is known that potato chips contains high unwanted fat content. It's best not to expose potato chips to UV light and oxygen, to prevent from rancidity. Ultimately, the product packaging of potato chips exclude air as well as light in order to prolonged the shelf life. Thus, a definite view bundle is not suitable for potato chips. In addition, the potato chips may be seen to be damaged which will reduce its sales appeal.
In the market there are several type of packaging styles. Which forms inffluence the type of material used. For instance, several brand like Lay's, Mister Potato, and Ruffles is by using a classic design poker chips bag. This tote normally used adaptable film materials such as cellophane and/or polypropylene. Both these materials are being used in combination for just one another to give a better security to the potato chips from changing weather conditions, UV light and oxygen. This materials also provides sparkle which may draw in customer, sealability, and capability to rip easily (wide open device).
Other than handbag shaped, Pringles comes out with a cylindrical packaging designed. This canister shaped (tubular) is manufactured out of paperboard-can which its interior split with foil and a resealable clear plastic lid. This sort of presentation allows the potato chips to be stacked neatly in the box compare to be loaded loosely in a tote. The materials also really helps to ensure the merchandise is averted from breakings, and any external condition which could harm or reduce the quality of the merchandise.
Besides packaging materials, packaging technology is important too. For packaging potato chips, it is important to exclude oxygen presence in the presentation as it may reduce the quality of the chips. During the sealing process, the right technology must be employed to avoid from presence of air in it. For instance, vacuum package is actually a possible option. However, because of the product attribute that is fragile, it is impossible to do vacuum deal as the potato chips will crumble under this condition. Thus, another option like pumping air and seal it might be the best decision.
It is important to keep in mind that packaging material and its technology need to be presented visually among the communication elements. These communication elements associated with technology all impact the purchase decision.
To convey product information is one of the presentation function. This product information is used by customers to aid them on the purchase decision process. Product information usually contain nourishment facts, set of ingredients, expiry time frame, meal, ect. Recently, consumer tend to be cautious towards their health, thus, food labeling is important to help them to select their product inclination. For example, there are customer who are alergic to peanut. For this reason, it is important to identify obviously the content of the product in the food label. Thus, customer may avoid certain product which contain peanut in it.
In order to increase the information transported by the merchandise, sometimes manufacturer use small fonts and very dense writing styles to cram everything on the label. This might lead to bafflement and reduce its readability (Silayoi and Speece, 2004). In addition, too much information could cause misleading or imprecise information for the customer too. Therefore, for those customers who are intensely rely on the product information they favor on the merchandise that has simple yet appropriate information. Silayoi and Speece do an analysis about how Thailand people reacted to the merchandise information that presented on the packaging. It really is resulted that product information that has an exact and clear information give a positive result rather than the hazy and messy demonstration of information. Which in a nutshell, which means that consumer tend to value the info on the food label.
Food and drug administration (FDA)
Consumer Purchase Decision- designed from Blackwell et al. (Consumer Behaviour 9th edition)
Purchase decision is a sophisticated matter which internal and exterior factors influence the ultimate result of the decision making to purchase a certain service or product. You will find 5 major levels of decision making, which can be seen as follow
Search for Information
Pre-Purchase Evaluation of Alternatives
As the model shows, consumers typically go through these five major phases during making decision process. You can find seven steps altogether, after consumption there are post-consumption analysis and the next is divestment. However, these 2 processes are usually involved with after utilization or consuming the goods. Nevertheless, these 2 techniques are unnecessary for decision making based on visual elements (this thesis based on visual elements); which only happen in the first 5 steps.
The first level of any purchase decision begins from customers figuring out their needs. The needs can be grouped into 2 categories that are high-involvement product and low-involvement product. High-involvement product is a product which important to the customer. This sort of product usually involve some financial, interpersonal, and/or personal risk where consumer has assessed the product carefully for a certain time frame. Examples of high-involvement products are car, cellphone, laptop, etc. On the other hand, low-involvement product is a product that will not affect the consumer financially, socially, and psychologically. In cases like this, consumer may well not take a lot of commitment to search and evaluate the product information as there are a lot of variety or substitute. In short, limited decision making is engaged for this kind of products. Exemplory case of low-involvement products are soaps, goodies, dairy product, grocery product, etc.
After discovering the needs, purchaser start to seek out information relating the products. Customer could obtain information from 2 different sources, internal and exterior. Internal is retrieving knowledgge based on the recollection or experience that customer got from a product (or brand). Consumer survey passively by plainly becoming receptive towards the information around them. Aside from that, exterior means collecting information from internet, market, responses, family, as well as others. Consumer actively seacrhing for the info realted to the products by searching the internet, reading food label on the packaging, searching for responses about the goods, browsing through department stores and retail outlets, etc. This collecting information behavior is interrelated to the product involvement. As the merchandise is viewed risky (a whole lot of factors influence the decision), customers tend pay more focus on the merchandise (Grossman and Wisenblit, 1999; Dholakia, 2001; Silayoi and Speece, 2004), thus on a high-involvement product customer will need their time on searching and comparing the products from one to another.
As a buyer is subjected to the product through communication marketing campaign (e. g Food Labeling, ad). One or more of the senses (5 senses) are activated, early processing starts. For instance, a graphic on the presentation that could stimulates brain.
The more relevant the information to the product chosen, the more attractive it'll be. For example, for many who are on diet, a product labeled low-fats tend to be attractive.
When attention is attracted, the information is then analyzed to get a much better understanding of the message against the consumer's memory (knowledge). For example, remembering a family recommendation to the certain product, that provides an optimistic image to it.
After improving understanding of the product information, the subject matter is either accepted or unaccepted. Which every marketers hoped the note is accepted, in order to proceed to the next step.
When the subject matter has been accepted, brain will memorized the info which will useful in the future. For example, when consumer aware of the quality of the merchandise and have a tendency to buy the same product from the same brand as they feel the merchandise is more reliable.
After getting a much better undestanding of the merchandise information, the 3rd level of purchase decision process is pre-purchase evaluation. At this stage consumer is evaluating for another options through the search process. They tend to compare and consider from different products and brands. For example, a consumer buying a potato chips. A couple of alot of different brands of potato chips that provide different flavour, such as Pringles, Lay's, Ruffles, ect. Consumer have a tendency to evaluate and monitor the size, quantity, quality and price of the product, using their company knowledge that they had about the goods. After assessing and meet their needs, those criterias may have an effect on their brand and product selection.
After selecting the goods and deciding if to get, it comes to next stages of buying process. In this technique, consumer still has likelihood on changing their product desire as there might other factors influenced the decision process, such as discount or promotional voucher.
When the purchasing process has been made, consumer consumpt the goods. This intake process may brings about the analysis of satisfaction degrees of a product or brand. This analysis will decide the probability of the client to patronage a certain product or brand regarding with their satisfaction level.
By understanding the stages of this consumer purchase decision, marketers are able to uncover what factors that affects your choice process. Which much more likely, involvement of the merchandise, visual and informational components of the presentation play a significant role on affecting consumer decision (Silayoi and Speece, 2004)
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