7.4.3. Socio-psychological level
This level includes three forms of manifestation of insincerity indicators: verbal, paraverbal and extraverbal forms. Let's consider them in more detail.
Verbal form of manifestation of insincerity indicators
Analyzing verbal methods of revealing the distortion of the information the interlocutor revealed two important factors:
- leakage of information (this is a mistake of the subject, which can either reveal the truth, or lead to the thought of distortion of information, without disclosing the truth);
a sign of the distortion of information (this is a behavioral signal of the partner's insincerity in communication, which indicates the presence of information distortion by the recipient, but does not disclose what is hidden).
Erroneous actions, such as slip of the tongue, forgetting familiar names and errors in reading and writing are not accidental, but significant and speak of internal psychological conflicts. When analyzing a reservation, the context in which it occurred is important.
One of the indicators of insincerity are verbosity, evasive answers, redundancy of the information given out.
These include interjections, such as ah & quot ;, a-ah & quot ;, e-ah & quot ;; repetitions of the type "I-I-I want to say, I really ..."; scraps of words: "I dey-really liked."Indicators of the insincerity of the interlocutor may be the appearance in the speech of expressions unusual for a given person in ordinary communication or the disappearance of typical words and phrases; demonstrative underlining (emphasis) with the help of speech means - intonation, pauses, etc. fragments of transmitted information, masking or distorting the true relation to it. This indicator refers to a group of techniques that are deliberately used by information-distorting subjects to disorient the interlocutor, and can serve as an index of insincerity when compared with other data.
Based on the analysis of the literature, the following techniques have been singled out that can serve as indicators of the insincerity of the interlocutor:
o A story about events that subjects knew well, but that occurred with other people;
o a story about real events with simultaneous transfer to another situation, or a time shift;
o breakdown of information into separate blocks, which were then transmitted in concise, thought-out phrases;
o use of obvious information that can easily be rechecked, suggesting that this is why there will be no doubt about the reliability of the message as a whole;
o detailing the false information so that it looks more real;
o Linking the logic and meaning of false and reliable information;
o The desire to keep track of one's own behavior (the desire to behave calmly, not to follow closely the behavior of the interlocutor, not to look away at clarifying questions, speak in an even voice, and quickly and confidently answer additional questions).
The following verbal forms of manifestations of the insincerity of the interlocutor were also revealed.
1. In the presentation of facts that were not really experienced, there is a vague and uncertainty. The lack of real activity also affects the formulation of information, depriving it of its active component, including at the grammatical level.
2. The exaggerated accuracy of the description of events indicates the preliminary learning of pre-prepared information, especially if these events occurred long ago.
3. Since due to individual psychological differences, differences in the mental state, different measures of involvement in events, different points of observation of events, selectivity of attention and perception, different people perceive the same event in different ways, coincidence, even in small details, information , received from several people, signals the insincerity of the interlocutors. When analyzing, it is necessary to take into account that significant details attract attention, while minor ones are evaluated and remembered in different ways. Therefore, the nature of the information transmitted must also vary among different people.
4. If the event has not really been experienced by the subject, insignificant moments in the description and trivialities that are typical for a particular person disappear in real experience of such events. Therefore, in this description, there are no unimportant details and details.
5. Different explanation of the same events at different stages of communication.
6. Positive information about yourself, no doubt about the interpretation of events.
7. Repeated, persistent, outwardly causeless repetition of any statements.
8. On the preliminary learning of information written in advance by another person, the terms, expressions, phraseological turns are not characteristic for the given subject (taking into account the level of development and education).
9. Inadequacy of the emotional background to the personal meaning of the event. It can be both overly exaggerated emotionality, and complete emotional unattachment.
10. Repeated references to one's integrity and disinterest.
11. Avoiding answering a direct question, trying to create the impression that the question is not understood or "forgotten."
12. Forgetting relatively highly personally significant events that can not be explained by psychological defense or hiding what a given person can not help knowing.
13. The presence of a contradiction both within the information itself, and when compared with information obtained from other sources. Distortion of information can be of a chain nature - one distortion generates another, forcing to make adjustments, which requires a lot of effort to memorize the content of the said and the time, in advance to think things over. The main way to identify distortion of information in such situations can serve as clarifying questions aimed at detailing known facts.
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