Probing ( probing ) is a set of techniques that prompt the respondent to complete and clear answers to the questionnaire questions. Sensing helps the respondent to focus on the topic of the interview and give only relevant information.
Sounding should not lead to any offsets of answers. We list the techniques of sounding.
Repetition of questions. The question should be repeated in the same formulation in which it was sounded for the first time.
Repetition of respondent's response. Respondent can be encouraged to a more detailed answer if to repeat verbatim what he already said in response to the question. Usually, the interviewer does this by pronouncing the text of the answer aloud in the process of recording it.
Using pauses and silent sounding. You can stimulate an expanded response with a pause, a wait-and-see look at the respondent. Pauses, however, should not be too long to not confuse the respondent. (And do not need to tap on the table.)
Support and encouragement of the respondent. If the respondent is embarrassed, he should be encouraged, for example, with these words: "There are no right and wrong answers, it is important for me to know your opinion". If the respondent asks to explain what the question means, in no case should you offer him your interpretation. You should ask the respondent to respond in accordance with how he understands this question.
Striving for clarity. To get full answers, sometimes you need to tell the respondent: "I did not quite understand what you mean. Could you explain this a bit more?
Using focused or neutral questions or comments. During the interview it is permissible to use some phrases like "anything else?", "what do you think about it?", "what?" most closely matches your feelings? or "what do you mean?" Using such phrases, the interviewer makes appropriate brief notes in the questionnaire next to the question being asked, and each phrase, like a repeated reading of the question, has its own abbreviation.
Rules for writing answers
The basic rule for recording answers to unstructured (open) questions is to write them down verbatim without making generalizations, abbreviations, and not replacing the respondent's formulations with one's own.
o It is necessary to write down during the interview, and not after its completion.
o For records, you must immediately use a blue or black handle. In no case can not write in pencil: no temporary markings in the questionnaire should not be, it can not be erased, cleaned, etc. Only then the field manager (supervisor) will be able to form an impression on the basis of the completed questionnaire about how the interview was conducted.
o It is necessary to mark variants of answers to structured questions in the questionnaire strictly in the way that is stipulated in the instruction. For example, according to the rules of the Foundation Public Opinion, the number of the required option is clearly, without touching the neighboring options, surrounded by a circle. If the number was circumvented incorrectly, it is neatly crossed out with a cross.
o When writing a response to an unstructured (open) question, everything that relates to it is recorded.
Even if the interviewer does not count on his memory, he still does not need to write down anything in the questionnaire that does not relate to the topic of the interview. In particular, it is in no way possible to record how the respondent, his address or telephone number was called. This information, as we will see below, is entered in another document - a route card, which, to ensure anonymity, is stored separately from the questionnaires. If the interviewer needs to write something down for memory, just a sheet of paper or a notebook is used.
End of the interview
In no case should the interviewer complete the interview without asking all the relevant questions. When the formal part of the interview is completed, it is necessary to answer all questions that the respondent will ask, including questions about the research project. Of course, one can not discover who is the customer of the research: confidentiality must be respected not only in relation to the respondent, but also in relation to the customer. We must try to ensure that the respondent has a favorable impression of the interview. All questions asked by the respondent on the topic of the interview, any of his spontaneous statements on this topic can also be recorded in the questionnaire.
After the interview is over, the respondent must be warned that the controller can still contact him.
After parting with the respondent, the interviewer immediately makes another record in the route map. There it is written:
o the sequence number of the interview in the series conducted by the interviewer within the assignment;
o street name;
o house number;
o number of apartments in the house;
o number of the apartment in which the interview was to be conducted in accordance with the rules of the selection of apartments established by the regulations
o the apartment number in which the interview was actually conducted, the name and, if it was named, the patronymic of the respondent;
o the age of the respondent;
o education of the respondent;
o the respondent's phone.
There is one more graph in the route map, which is filled later at the control of the interviewer's work. It puts a mark if this interview is monitored.
After completing the assignment, the interviewer submits the routing card to the supervisor along with the completed questionnaires.
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