Speech techniques used in the process of distortion of information
The untruthful messages can be impulsive, episodic. However, they also highlight the strategic distortion of information, aimed at gradual manipulation by creating the desired image in the eyes of the communication partner. In this case, the distortion of information is more complex. Its correlation with truthful information is usually calculated in advance, special communication combinations are formed, subject to a single manipulative goal. A person who uses untrue messages puts on the mask he needs, creates an image that is attractive to the target.
And it happens that the distortion of information occurs not through the fault of the information source, but in the process of its transmission, i.e. the source of disinformation is the transmission channel itself. People rarely think about how often mistakes caused by sending a message are the cause of our misunderstanding. People remember basically the meaning of the message, and not the words with which it was transmitted. And if the meaning is misunderstood, then there are already further mistakes. And then at the input and the output we have completely different information.
Another aspect of possible distortion of information is a different interpretation of the same words depending on the intonation, punctuation, context or associations that arise in different people for the same words. Some people are so able to construct phrases that, in fact, deceiving their interlocutor, formally remain right. Let us recall the situation from the children's cartoon. Depending on where the comma will be put, the meaning of the phrase completely changes: "You can not pardon execution."
As you know, to deceive a critical person is much more difficult, because in this case every word, every gesture of the interlocutor is weighed in the mind. Conversely, if a person trusts the other person, he behaves freely and uninhibitedly.
In order to instill confidence in his victim, various means are used:
- formation of an appropriate reputation;
- the creation of the image of a truthful person;
- the creation of a certain legend that would provide uncritical perception on the part of the victim;
- a game on individual personalities (we recall the film of our childhood "The Adventures of Pinocchio" and the song from it of Alice's fox: "The fool does not need a knife, he'll come up with three boxes, and do with him what you want"); the potential victim has a sense of self-worth. Even Dale Carnegie wrote that almost every person you meet thinks he is in some way superior to you and you will find the right way to his heart if you unobtrusively let him know that you recognize the important role he plays in his little world, and recognize it sincerely.Known investigators of fraud issues, such as Paul Ekman, Yuri Shcherbatykh, Ramil Garifullin, and others, described a number of techniques used in the process of distorting information.
Manipulation with the information flow - there are many ways to manipulate information to create a false model of a person's reality in a person. Some of these techniques will be considered separately.
Default (hiding) is the transmission of incomplete true information, as a result of which the victim commits a mistake. The inductor conceals some part of the information. He does not deceive in the full sense of the word. He just does not finish something, he keeps silent about something. All his words correspond to reality. Only now the reality itself is described in part. Something very important and significant is missing from view. There is one subtlety here: most people believe that silence and falsehood are two different things. That is why, if there is a choice how to lie, people often prefer to keep silent about something, do not speak, rather than openly distort facts. And one more trick: concealment has many advantages over frank falsification. The main thing is that you do not have to invent anything. There is no risk of getting caught because the whole legend not worked out in advance. It's easier to hide than to manipulate facts.
And afterwards, if such a deception is discovered, it will be possible to justify it easily: they say, I wanted to say more about this later, but I forgot ... Is there not much else that you can think of when a false word is not said. In such situations, a person does not go too far. Speaking of your forgetfulness, you do not need to remember the whole legend. All that needs to be remembered is a statement about bad memory. However, it is important not to overdo it. The loss of memory can only be referred to when it comes to insignificant things or supposedly insignificant in terms of a deceiver, or something that happened long ago. Otherwise, no one will believe you.
Breeding - this is an election pass to the victim only profitable information impostor. In a rivalry with a business partner, sometimes it's much easier to hide some information from him, rather than tell the truth, and then challenge it in polemic.
Shuffling is such a way of presenting information, when attention is drawn only to those facts that are beneficial to the source of information. Negative facts are not even mentioned for him. This also includes the creation of an appropriate design, which presents the question from a certain angle. Let's recall one of the advertising companies of TVs of a very famous brand, when the quality of the product, which is its drawback, was presented by the authors of advertising as its undoubted merit.
Distortion - this method consists in changing the proportions. This may be an obvious understatement of something important, or, on the contrary, an exaggeration of the insignificant. A typical example of this reception are reports from the battlefields. The American psychologist F. Butler proposed a simple version of an outwardly objective two-way argument: he advised giving the strongest, most convincing arguments in favor of his position, the weakest in favor of the other. So you can show the inconsistency of any opponent, any theory. It is also possible to compare knowingly unequal categories. The non-specialists will not even notice it. In the garden - elder, and in Kiev - uncle. This is just about this reception.
Reversal - reversal, replacement of "black on white & quot ;. Let's remember what the Polish writer-humorist Jerzy Lec wrote about this: "Never change the truth! Change the truth! One example of this may be the substitution of goals: when one's interest is given for the interest of another person. Remember, for example, how the fence Tom Sawyer painted in the famous work of Mark Twain ("paint the fence - it's cool").
Disorientation is a frank "blundering" issue. A deceiver is informed of everything, anything, but not in fact. His interlocutor gets a lot of information, not related to the topic under discussion. He literally drowns in this unnecessary information. This distracts him from the substance of the case in question. That's why it's so important to negotiate "keep your goal". Widespread use is made of such types of disorientation as flattery and slander. This technique is especially often and widely used by various political leaders.
Half-truth is a mix of frank lies and reliable information; one-sided coverage of facts; inaccurate and vague formulation of the discussed provisions; references to sources with a caveat like: "I do not remember who said ..."; distortion of a valid statement with the help of value judgments, etc. Receiving half-truths is most often used when it is necessary to avoid an undesirable turn of the dispute, when there are no reliable arguments, but it is imperative to challenge the opponent when necessary, contrary to common sense, to incline someone to a certain conclusion. It's true, but only partially.
Throwing false evidence - it is known that people trust the ideas that arise in their own heads much more than those that come from another person. Therefore, experienced communicators always try to avoid direct pressure on their victims, preferring an indirect, unobtrusive impact.
How can this be done? For example, so: to present the victim with facts in such a way that they lead him to a certain conclusion, which the faker needs. Conclusions, based on the facts thrown, are made a victim completely independently. In this case, it is very important that one important principle is observed: evidence should be thrown like a random, indirect, only then they do not cause suspicion. Hence the conclusion suggests: after obtaining proof of someone's guilt, think about whether there are people for whom this development is favorable. It is possible that this information has not come about by chance. Examples can not be counted: the events that Lermontov described in his drama "Masquerade", as well as Iago, who gradually, step by step, warmed Othello's jealousy.
Create non-existent reality with the help of small but expressive details around the victim creates a false space area, which should give the words and actions of scammers special persuasiveness. This technique was widely used by infamous fraudulent pyramids: "MMM", "Vlastilina" and others. They had smart offices, representative protection, i.e. all that is so vividly indicative of the reliability and solidity of the firm.
Masking - represents an attempt to hide any significant information with the help of some non-essential information. There are four main concealment options:
o Masking a substantial lie with a nonessential lie.
o Masking the essential truth with a nonessential lie.
o Masking a substantial lie with an unimportant truth.
o Masking an essential truth with an inessential truth.
A false output is another technique that avoids the utterance of untruth. It is to allow the interlocutor to draw a conclusion from what he said himself, but at the same time to lead him to making this conclusion false.
False interpretation - a person is told a lot of truth, which is easy to verify, and a drop of lies. In a stream of true facts, false information easily slips. At the logical level, this is the ability to inject some false assumptions into the consciousness based on a large number of authentic and easily verifiable true judgments.
To implement them, use such techniques as reporting a large amount of true information, among which only a small part is false. Because of this, it is rather difficult to detect cheating - it's just as difficult as finding a needle in a haystack. For example, many motorists are faced with this technique at their car service stations. Very often, with the necessary repair of a particular unit, the "master repairmen" even do what you do, in principle, and do not need. At the same time, the cost of work is significantly increased.
Changing the context - a case is brought from the life that was in reality. But this case is transferred to the context of another context. This makes it possible to keep in memory a lot of small details relating to this case, which creates the illusion of truthfulness of the story. There is no need to compose anything and specially memorize. For example, you and your friend went to a barbecue in the forest, and your wife was told that you are repairing a car in the garage of the same friend. You really did repair the car, only a week ago. Having come home, you describe your wife all your day, when you were really busy with the car in the sweat of your face. In your story, there are many small details that you do not even need to invent, but only to remember. The illusion of the veracity of the story is complete!
The effect of defrauded expectations. This method consists in the fact that the person to be deceived is given some information, in view of which the potential victim predicts the further development of events in the most probable direction. The deceiver does the same, thereby violating the victim's expectations. The purpose of his message was to direct the interlocutor's thinking along the path of actualization of the most frequently encountered familiar situations. Thus, the deceived himself is always an involuntary accomplice in deception: he is a victim of his own inadequate ideas about reality. Also, fraudsters can use the true information, provoking the interlocutor to erroneous conclusions from it.
Deception from the opposite - caught Brother Fox Brother Rabbit. And Brother Rabbit asks: "Do with me what you want, even eat me, just do not throw in the thorn bush." "If he is so afraid of this," thought the Fox brother, "then I'll throw it there." So clever brother Rabbit deceived foolish brother Fox (from the tale of Uncle Remus).
A message of truth under the guise of deception is another related method. It is necessary to tell the truth, but with a twitch, so that the victim does not believe it, ie. to tell the truth is false. Otto von Bismarck said: "If you want to fool the world, tell him the truth." Deception with the help of truth is a rare form of cheating. It works very well, because people, as a rule, do not expect such impudence. But here you either need to be good at owning yourself, or be a good actor.
A false explanation - a person can not hide his feelings, especially if he can not do it, and lie about their cause. Truly recognizing the emotion experienced, it is misleading as to the cause of its appearance. For example, you discuss your boss, and at this time he enters the room. You are confused. However, this embarrassment can be explained by anything.
Deceive those who want to be deceived. "We do not deceive anyone so cleverly as ourselves" are the words of Schopenhauer. And it's really so! In many cases, the victim of deception misses the errors of the person distorting the information, giving his ambiguous behavior the most favorable interpretation. This is done in order to avoid those unpleasant consequences that may lead to exposure. Often the victim simultaneously wins and loses from untruthful information or from its exposure, but these results are not necessarily balanced.
Deception by rearrangement - in this variant the potential victim is simply forced to try on the role of a deceiver. As a result of various psychological manipulations, the victim begins to feel that this is already deceiving others, he has the excitement. Up to a certain point, real fraudsters diligently support this illusion. And only in the finals everything falls into place. As La Rochefoucauld wrote, "the best way to be deceived is to find yourself more cunning than others."
Falsification (juggling) is the transfer of knowingly false information on the substance of the matter under consideration. These include perjury, false statements and refutations, fabrication of facts, documents, reference to non-existent sources, etc.
Usually, falsification is resorted to when a single default is not enough. In this case, the person is already taking the next step: he not only conceals truthful information, but also gives false as true information. The real state of affairs is concealed, deliberately false information is being delivered to the partner.
We considered various ways of distorting information. Of course, in the reality of their modifications much more. In any case, the key point in the analysis, whether this message is true or not, is to determine the motives of a person, to establish the reasons why he deems it necessary to keep silent about certain facts known to him or distort them.
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