Stages of implementation of affective social marketing...

Stages of Affective Social Marketing

Definition of the problem.

The beginning of the entire social marketing program is the definition of the problem. Calculations at this stage can nullify all subsequent efforts. Incomplete definition of the problem leads to simplified and inefficient programs. A specialist in social marketing should clearly define and understand the problem. It is necessary to understand the problem from the point of view of the person or group of people on whom the social marketing program is aimed. Often for this it is necessary to interview a lot of people who can influence its decision and who are related to it.

Select the appropriate target audience. The definition of the problem forms the choice of target audiences. We need to divide the potential audience into relatively homogeneous subgroups and choose one or more groups as the basis for developing a social marketing program. For example, the anti-smoking program for adolescents may differ from the same program for adult smokers who already have health problems. The first program should teach children not to succumb to peer pressure, the second - to focus on behavioral strategies that will help break the old habit. For example, nicotine patches or other pharmacological agents can be used to reduce the unpleasant phenomena that result from quitting.

Sometimes there is a need for additional research on target audiences, since the target audience you choose needs to be well understood. At this stage, social marketing specialists conduct face-to-face interviews with group members, observations and studies in order to better understand its interests, attitudes to the proposed behavior change, the reasons why the group may not want to change behavior, what can attract it in this change , what media are used by the group and other information useful for the social marketing program.

Develop a coordinated comprehensive marketing plan. An effective social marketing plan should be prepared with the same thoroughness as any purely commercial marketing project. Indeed, because social marketing programs often call for people to make any changes that they can hardly do, for example, quit smoking or change their habitual attitude to food, the social marketing plan must therefore be carefully thought out and implemented. The social marketing plan should include four mandatory components, namely: a new product and/or a model of behavior proposed in place of the former; price this change; where and how a person can get this product (place), information or any other proposed means (promotion); what measures should be taken to support a specific marketing plan.

The plan should also reflect realistically the desired results of behavior change, the time frame and how these results will be evaluated. It is important to develop a comprehensive plan, since coordinated actions aimed at a clearly defined target audience are much more effective than one massive campaign for everyone.

Planning for an alleged behavior change ( Product ).

Specialists in social marketing should seriously consider what kind of behavior change to offer people. To edit

someone's behavior, it's not enough just to say: "Quit smoking." In the event that conducting social marketing decided to promote smoking cessation, the program should determine the ways to achieve the desired behavior.

New ideas, behaviors, products are most likely to be taken when one can clearly visualize their positive result, and also when the "new" compatible with the real life of people, they can easily "try" and evaluate the benefits offered before what was before. Specialists in social marketing try to optimally simplify the proposed change in behavior, make it the most lucid and easy, so that it is most likely to be accepted by the target audience.

Development of specific products. While typical social marketing programs are aimed at introducing and accepting ideas (for example, quitting smoking, donating blood, mastering first aid techniques such as artificial respiration and heart massage), they rely not only on the promotion of abstract ideas. On the contrary, at every opportunity, specialists in social marketing try to offer people a specific (tangible) product through which one can induce a person to change behavior and do it most easily and efficiently.

The selection, development and promotion of products that contribute to change often differentiates social marketing from other approaches to the public, wholly and entirely based on advertising. As part of the Stanford University Program for the Prevention of Heart Disease, large heart-shaped magnets and a series of mini-posters about food useful to the heart were produced and distributed so that people belonging to the target audience could attach their homes to the refrigerator as a reminder of the need for healthy nutrition. Clear to any and expressive drawings depicted on the cards, convince illiterate parents to make the children the necessary vaccinations. The nicotine patch reduces the physiological dependence on tobacco, accelerating the behavior change necessary to quit smoking. In each specific case, the product facilitates the transition to favorable behavioral changes.

Control the cost and assimilation of the desired behavior model. In general, the cost of the product is determined by the cost of its purchase. The concept of the value of a commercial product includes the time spent on shopping, the depreciation of the car, efforts to select a purchase, the cost of storage, use, repair and, ultimately, the disposal of the purchased product.

The value of a social product in its monetary terms is often not taken into account. For example, how much does it cost to become a donor after death? However, the value, expressed not in money, but in the time spent, efforts, psychological stress, can be very high. For example, how much are the efforts spent to part with a pleasant habit of smoking or consuming fried and fatty foods?

The marketing approach involves getting people something in return for the old - acquiring a product or adopting a new pattern of behavior - while they are hoping to improve their lives, or at least not make it worse than before. Specialists in social marketing often can not resort to price reduction, because in monetary terms, behavior change is usually zero - for example, daily intake of aspirin, which reduces the risk of stroke. Indeed, a healthy diet is often cheaper than unhealthy, and quitting smoking rather saves money than vice versa. Costs for a person in this case are often expressed in efforts to overcome their own inertia and change long-established habits.

To reduce these costs, social marketing specialists use two common approaches. First, they can increase the real value of the proposed product. Using modern methods of family planning allows you to make gaps between pregnancies, which improves the health of women and their children. This is an absolute value. Secondly, specialists in social marketing can try to increase the importance of adopting a new model of behavior by reducing actual and (or) real costs. Convenient time of reception - in the evenings or on weekends, providing childcare and a benevolent atmosphere can reduce costs when donating blood, vaccinating and attending a family planning consultation.

Certain conditions of payment may also be included in the pricing, subsequently reducing the monetary value (usually modest). In developing countries, there is a problem of forest degradation caused by stress on land and forests, climate change and the use of obsolete wood furnaces that require a lot of fuel and pollute the air in the houses. Collecting fuel away from home requires a lot of time. Specialists in social marketing can try to reduce wood consumption and improve people's health by promoting the use of more efficient furnaces made from local materials, including clay. Since many residents can not afford to buy a new stove without any income at all, social marketing specialists consider the possibility of paying by installments or in kind - products and their own labor for potential buyers.

Select participants in activities that require interaction ( Place ). The product manufacturer needs to organize one or several channels for its distribution, to deliver the finished product from the place of production to the consumer. Some social marketing programs offer products, relying on their direct physical receipt by consumers. For example, social marketing programs promoting the use of contraceptives, try to make this product more accessible to target consumer groups by spreading it through all sorts of channels. Contraceptives are distributed in public and private clinics, as well as through pharmacies and shops that work until late at night.

Other social marketing programs do not deal with specific products, but they need to interact with different groups and agencies to carry out their program. The idea of ​​a campaign to quit smoking requires coordination with other sympathetic organizations to select training venues and organize side events in order to attract as many participants as possible.

Planning an information program ( Advocacy ).

The information, or propaganda, component of the social marketing program can include advertising, public relations, publicity, personal contact and other means of popularization. Advertising in the media is usually an important means to explain the meaning of the social marketing program.

In order to effectively promote a social product, a suitable audience should be selected, appropriate messages prepared, which then should be regularly broadcast in the most effective form in the media in order to reach the desired audience.

Many effective social marketing programs recognize the benefits of using various communication tools that enhance and attract attention to the messages being transmitted. For example, in Egypt, a national social marketing program for the distribution of contraceptive means is conducted through television, radio, newspapers, street ads and information meetings in factories and other workplaces. The Stanford University Program for the Prevention of Heart Disease uses classroom instruction, individual counseling, television advertising, manuals and other tools to convince people of the need for a healthy lifestyle.

Each element of information and propaganda should be carefully thought out and tested in advance at a selective target audience. If any complexity is identified in advance, a dubious message can be corrected or replaced.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the social marketing program. Social marketing programs require tracking of each component as the program progresses (the formative assessment) in order to identify shortcomings and unexpected obstacles, which allows you to adjust the program on the go.

The results of the social marketing program should also be carefully monitored in order to determine the degree of their implementation (final evaluation). Most social marketing programs are funded by government agencies and non-profit organizations and have limited budgets.

Estimating costs (including voluntarily spent time and materials) and program results will help to choose the direction of further activities in the field of social marketing and determine both the most, and the least effective ways to implement it.

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