15.2.2. Storage of goods
Products produced by the enterprise enter the warehouse of the enterprise, then it is transported to the warehouse of the trade organization. Warehouses place and temporarily store goods.
Storage - the stage of the technological cycle of goods movement from the release of finished products to consumption or disposal, the purpose of which is to ensure the stability of the original properties or their modification with minimal losses. Storage of goods is made in special conditions in specially prepared premises.
Storage conditions - is a collection of external environmental influences caused by the storage and placement of goods in the store: they are selected depending on the properties of the goods.
The storage regime is characterized by sanitary and hygienic and climatic parameters.
Sanitary and hygienic indicators are associated with the cleanliness of the storage area, the product and its packaging. To preserve the quality of goods in the storage area, disinfection is carried out, means are used to repel rodents and birds, a prescribed sanitary and hygienic regime for storing goods is maintained.
Microclimate storage area is characterized by the following indicators: storage temperature, relative humidity, air exchange, gas composition and illumination. Maintaining optimal temperature is the most important condition for storing goods. Increasing the temperature above the norm speeds up chemical, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological processes and significantly reduces shelf life. The optimal temperature of storage of goods varies and depends on the properties of the goods.
Based on the necessary for storing the temperature regime, goods are divided into groups:
a) -10 to -12 ° C - meat, fish, butter, fats;
b) -18 to -20 ° C - meat, fish;
c) from -23 to -25 ° C - meat, fish, fruits, vegetables;
d) from -28 to -30 ° C - meat, fish, fruits, vegetables;
a) from -2 to -5 ° C - boiled, smoked sausages, margarine, fruits, vegetables;
b) from -7 to -10 ° C - smoked sausages, fats, salted fish;
a) from -1 to + 1 ° C - fruits, vegetables, eggs;
b) 0 to +6 ° C - dairy products, cakes, pastries.
4) Moderate: +10 +12 ° C - alcohol (except vodka, beer), soft drinks,
5) Wide range: -30 + 30 ° C - bakery products, flour, cereals, sugar, alcohol, water;
6) a wide range of positive temperatures: 0 + 20 ° C - confectionery, canned food, wine, jam, jam, jam.
The temperature regime, ensuring the long-term storage of food products, is created with the help of refrigeration equipment.
Relative air humidity characterizes the degree of air saturation with water vapor. Evaporation of moisture from goods leads to quantitative and qualitative losses, its natural loss due to shrinkage, wilting (drying), resulting in increased waste. The higher the humidity of goods and the lower the relative humidity of air, the greater the losses indicated. Therefore, goods with high humidity are stored at high relative humidity.
Goods with low moisture content and high hygroscopicity can not be stored at high humidity.
Depending on the rate of air humidity during storage of goods, they can be divided into groups:
- dry (cereals, flour, salt, sugar, dried fruits, spices). Humidity is not higher than 65%;
- moderate (coffee, tea, confectionery). Humidity of air is not higher than 70-75%;
- Wet (dairy products, pumpkin, onions, garlic, meat, fish, wine). Humidity of air is not higher than 80-85%;
- high humidity (fruits, sour vegetables, frozen fruits). Humidity is not higher than 90-95%.
Relative air humidity, like temperature, is one of the most significant indicators of the storage regime.
Placement of goods characterize the load indicators of warehouses: area and load factor, height of placement. These metrics are studied within the discipline "Organization of trade and technological processes".
When placing goods for storage, the following rules are taken into account:
- compatibility, i.e. adherence to the product's "neighborhood";
- rational use of warehouses - loading of goods should be carried out taking into account the minimum allowable distance of goods from walls, ceiling, heating appliances; distance between passes;
- ensuring the mechanization of loading and unloading operations: the loading height and its coefficient must be observed.
When co-location of goods take into account the storage regime, the ability of goods to extract aromatic substances, the sorption ability of goods.
In more detail, the technology of storage of goods is described within the disciplines of "Storage of food products", "Organization and technology of trade."
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