Strategies simple and deep integration
The globalization of the production and marketing of cars, which manifested itself in the early 1990s, necessitated the modernization of the Fordist used by American automotive TNCs, strategy. The upgraded strategy was called "simple integration". In accordance with this strategy, foreign affiliates of US TNCs carried out (as a rule, on the basis of technology received from the parent company) a limited number of operations for the production and supply of the parent company of certain components for the production of finished products using competitive advantages available to the producers of the host country.
In the mid-1990s. under the influence of liberalization of international investment activity, the spread of new technologies and the simultaneous tightening of competition, American automotive TNCs have moved to the strategy of "deep integration."
The essence of the strategy is that geographically dispersed branches and fragmented production systems have become networks of production and marketing integrated globally or regionally, differentiated depending on the advantages of each recipient country.
Modern competitive strategies in the world market
The main direction of modern strategies of American automakers is the maximization of profits through the expansion of expansion to foreign markets, and first of all, the markets of developing countries. Modern American producers have adjusted the fordist strategy, refusing to minimize the assortment. Focusing on exports, they are forced to study the preferences of consumers in different countries, while maintaining mass character and simultaneously individualizing production.
The effectiveness of the strategies of European car manufacturers is most accurately illustrated by the European branch of the corporation Daimler Chrysler AG - Daimler-Benz AG. In general, the strategies used by European producers are more diverse than those of US producers. Thus, the Mercedes-Benz trademark today is an example of the most effective application of competitive strategies that have ensured this brand a stable reputation for high-quality reliable cars, endowed with the latest scientific and technical achievements in the automotive industry and featuring a unique external design and the highest quality interior trim of the car.
It is the differentiation strategies aimed at providing each brand with a sustainable reputation for modern, reliable, technological, high-quality cars that are common to all European strategies.
In general, the competitive strategies of Western European manufacturers are inherent in the differentiation of the approach to implementing strategies than to American producers. Even within a single corporation (for different divisions and divisions), a continuous process of modernization of its strategies is under way.
In the Asian segment of the world market of cars, there is a clear trace of the approaches to the development and implementation of competitive strategies of Japanese, Korean and Chinese manufacturers.
Japanese manufacturers occupy leading positions only among Asian car exporters, but also in the world. The car is the most important subject of prestigious consumption, its brand - an indicator of the social status of the owner of the car. This is facilitated by the competent production and foreign trade policy of Japanese automobile companies, implemented in strategies that have received the name "Toyotistic" in the specialized literature. In them, the tactics of organizing the production and marketing of cars are fully subordinated to the solution of the task of prompt response to changes in the world market situation, the trends in the development of the world economy in general and the automobile automobile industry in particular.
Currently, this strategy is completely followed by Asian car manufacturers. No less diffusion and recognition of "toyotism" received from the European players of the world market. By the end of the century, many European companies began to apply this strategy. To a lesser extent, it is used by American manufacturers.
At the heart of the toyotistic strategies lie:
a) flexible specialization, which involves small-scale production of a large number of modifications of high-quality and therefore more expensive cars, which allows them to be constantly upgraded, reducing and optimizing the life cycle of the product;
b) more compact, territorially organized and highly efficient production structures.
Japanese automotive companies are trying to place their production facilities and R & D departments as close to their headquarters as possible - so they are able to minimize development time and implement new products more quickly.
The specifics of the strategy also include the exclusion of intra-corporate transactions, a very high degree of territorial localization of the production process within the "flexible specialized industrial agglomerations" and strict quality control at all stages of car production. This is difficult to achieve when using the global supply strategy ( global sourcing). Therefore, for toyotism characteristic is the concentration of the main stages of the production process in industrialized countries in the limited geographical areas in which network structures are formed. On the periphery of the world economy, the production of standardized components is usually made, which are not critical for the quality of the final product.
Technological basis of "Toyotism" are flexible automated production, and the organizational basis - two principles in the relationship of the assembly company and its suppliers:
1) supply of components on the principle of just-in-time, which allows you to work practically without the use of warehouse space;
2) close cooperation of the parent enterprise and its subcontractors in the field of R & D.
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