Chapter 4. Strategy and tactics of marketing activities of the enterprise
4.1. Organization of marketing activities at the enterprise
4.1.1. Marketing Management
Specific marketing implementation, i.e. its management, maintenance and fulfillment depends on the nature of the enterprise, the product offered to it, the state of the market, the entrepreneur's intentions and ambitions. Marketing can be simple, even elementary, or very complex, including long-term product planning, development and maintenance of pricing policy, analysis not only of the market, but also of entrepreneurship. The more multi-faceted the enterprise is, the more multi-faceted marketing.
Marketing management is considered as a process of harmonizing the conditions and opportunities of the external and internal environment of the enterprise. The marketing function is primarily aimed at solving a number of issues:
o What to produce? Take into account the state of the market and the potential capacity of the enterprise to produce the right products;
o whom to sell? The target market of the enterprise and its requirements are determined;
o How to sell? A set of marketing efforts (assortment, packaging, price, sales, advertising, etc.) is being developed.
Marketing as a concept for the management of the enterprise's value-added activities has a number of common functions inherent in any type of management: goal-setting (planning), organization, coordination, accounting and control. At the same time, these common functions inherent in any management process are complemented by marketing-specific ones:
o study the marketing environment;
o Comprehensive market research;
o analysis and evaluation of the enterprise's supply-side capabilities;
o Development of marketing strategy and program;
o implementation of commodity, price, distribution (marketing) and communication policies;
o formation of marketing services structures;
o control marketing activities and evaluate its effectiveness.
Comprehensive market research covers the following major areas:
o study the marketing environment;
o analysis of aggregate market characteristics, market research and forecasts;
o analysis of consumer properties of a particular product and its behavior in the market, as well as consumer perceptions of the proper characteristics of the product;
o analysis of the firm's market structure: firms-buyers, firms-competitors, firms-neutrals;
o analysis of forms and methods of marketing;
o identification and study of market segments;
o study consumers (individual and collective).
The analysis of the company's production and sales capabilities is an important part of marketing activities, because knowing its capabilities, it is possible to determine the market needs, effectively select a particular segment of it, a target market for massive marketing work.
The development of a marketing strategy and program is considered as:
o Development of strategic and tactical operational plans for production and marketing activities, including forecasts of market development, goals, strategy, tactics of the enterprise's behavior in the market, its commodity, sales, price, communication and personnel policies;
o budgeting costs associated with marketing activities
o evaluation of the effectiveness of marketing activities;
o Developing forms and methods for monitoring the implementation of marketing programs.
In Fig. 4.1 the scheme of management of marketing activity of the enterprise is presented.
The marketing strategy should answer five questions.
1. Where are we?
2. Why are we here?
3. Where do we want to be?
4. How do we get there?
5. What do we need for this?
The implementation of the commodity policy is a special section of the marketing program, a series of concrete measures implemented to influence the market, to the right -
Fig. 4. 1 . Managing your marketing activities
lened to increase the competitive position of the enterprise. In this case, these measures relate to the consumer properties of the product, the development of new types of goods and its range.First of all, the commodity policy aims to bring the qualitative characteristics of the product to the level of specific requests of consumers of the selected market segment and ensure effective sales.
The implementation of the pricing policy involves the determination of the price strategy of the company's long-term market behavior and price tactics for a shorter period with respect to each group and each type of product, and specific market segments.
Price policy allows you to change the price component of the competitiveness of the goods, as required by modern market conditions, and establish the level of the chain depending on the economic situation, forecasts of changes in supply and demand, the phases of the product life cycle and other factors.
Typically, the chain policy includes a combination of different types of price behavior in the market: a policy of high, low, differentiated, competitive, prestigious prices, and the like.
The pricing policy also includes the development of a methodology for determining the level of an assigned price in an approximate quantitative expression, as well as the methodology for calculating and fixing a contract price.
Implementation of the marketing policy involves planning and forming sales channels for the goods of the enterprise through a direct, indirect or combined method. Direct method assumes the organization of branches, sales depots, demonstration halls, shopping centers, stations and maintenance centers directly by the company itself, i.e. ways to trade through its own dependent sales network.
Indirect method means trading through independent intermediaries (intermediary firms, brokerage, dealer companies).
Combined (mixed) method involves trading through mixed companies abroad and joint ventures in the territory of the United States.
Implementation of the communication policy (FOSTIS - formation of demand and promotion of sales) is the planning and implementation of a set of measures aimed at promoting the goods on the market, for which are designed and implemented activities to organize product and prestigious advertising, direct or personal sales, sales promotion (lending, installments, benefits), pre-sale preparation of the goods, after-sales warranty and post-warranty service, etc.
The implementation of personnel policy and organization of marketing activities provides for the creation of special units in the structure of management of the company's production, marketing and scientific and technical activities.
Structural divisions are built, as a rule, according to three basic principles:
o on the functions of marketing activities;
o by product principle (by product)
o by region or by customer group. The effectiveness of marketing activities is assessed, as a rule, in stages:
o at the planning stage of the marketing program - for the purpose of preliminary evaluation of marketing activities;
o at the stage of marketing program implementation.
Successful implementation of marketing programs largely depends on the future success of the enterprise.
Evaluating the effectiveness of marketing work is a difficult task, since it is very difficult to express the quantitative effect obtained, for example, from activating sales precisely at the expense of marketing activities. Nevertheless, some techniques include the use of econometric models that allow a holistic quantification of marketing activities.
Control of marketing activities is carried out in the implementation of marketing programs in the form of control over the implementation of the company's plans for the sale and marketing of products, profits, the effectiveness of marketing costs. The current monitoring (monitoring) over the implementation of marketing activities in all their diversity makes it possible to make certain amendments to marketing activities, which also increases the effectiveness of ongoing activities in the production and marketing of products.
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