Brand experts identify it as the leveraging on the existing brand equity, while firms call it a exercise to build consciousness and brand recall of products on the negative list, the government on the other side comes down intensely on the intriguing idea of surrogate advertising. The anti-tobacco lobby is going strong worldwide and the set of negative products atlanta divorce attorneys country is on a growth.
"Surrogate advertising is a representation of the hypocritical world that we live in. We consider some products good enough to be sold however, not sufficient to be advertised. A marketer has to sell his product, and can find methods to promote it. I don't blame him. "
- Pushpinder Singh
Senior Creative Director (O & M)
The use of surrogate advertising in India can be tracked back to 1995 when the Cable Television Action 1995 was enforced which explained - "No ad shall be permitted which promotes immediately or indirectly, development, sale or consumption of cigarettes, tobacco products, wine, alcohol, liquor or other intoxicants". This ban on advertising of such products brings about the emergence of surrogate advertising in India in a big way. A surrogate advertisements is generally grasped as - "the one when a different product is advertised using an already proven brand name. Such advertisements or sponsorship helps in adding to brand recall. The different products shown and found in the advertising campaign are called 'Surrogates'. Surrogate could either resemble the original product or could be a completely different product, but using the proven brand of an original product".
However, the idea of surrogate advertising at that time had not been something not used to the world as UK was facing the same from problem with marketing and advertising of such products from a long time. The same movements were implemented in India and the marketplace was flooded by surrogate products of founded brands of the so called 'negative products' and their promotions. Some of the noticeable types of surrogates in India are Gilbeys water, Mcdowells Soda, Bacardi Music Cds, Red and White bravery awards and Royal Obstacle Sports tools.
Since then, every year marketeers of these brands have been spending humongous sum of money in developing and promoting surrogates. Regarding to Allan Colaco, Secretary General, Advertising Criteria Council of India (ASCI), surrogate advertisements formed 5 % of the total Indian advertising industry, which stands at Rs 21, 000 crore (approx $4. 5 billion), as per the Pitch Madison Multimedia Advertising Prospect (2009). In other words, over one thousand crore rupees spent by marketeers annually, without even showing the genuine product to the receivers. This statistic amazes me as there are no specific tools to judge the success of a surrogate plan, but still a large amount of money is being allocated to the same 12 months on 12 months. Though a lot of studies have been done in regards to what surrogate advertising is and how it should be done, whether it's ethically appropriate or it is a monster in a mask but there is absolutely no major work done aiming at measuring the impact of surrogate advertising on the brains of consumers.
Therefore this study aims at evaluating the viability of the money spent in this type of advertising also to check if surrogate advertising creates any tangible impact on the thoughts of consumers and whether or not it helps in increasing sales of a particular brand in the other.
The books on surrogate advertising and its impact is very scanty as this problem has originated very lately and is confined to countries where advertising of such damaging products is prohibited by the federal government or the regulatory body.
The basic question that should be responded is whether advertising make any material impact in the sales of alcohol or tobacco products. Kent M. Lancaster and Alyse R. Lancaster disregard that there surely is any difference in sales of tobacco and alcohol related products with or without advertising. They reviewed the majority of the published evidence worldwide on the effects of overall advertising and of advertising bans on aggregate demand of cigarette and tobacco products. Based on their exhaustive research they argued that partial bans on advertising are likely to employ a little if any impact on the intake of such products, the reason being an entire ban in advertising of such products itself did not had any effect on sales or aggregate demand of the products.
However, on the other side, Saffer and Frank in their analysis established a relationship between ban on cigarette advertising and the reduction in tobacco ingestion. They figured a comprehensive group of cigarette advertising bans can reduce its utilization and a incomplete ban will have a very little or no effect on its usage. Advertising of tobacco and liquor products is open public health issue if they raise the consumption of these products. General population health advocates also assert the same viewpoint.
Mehta (2003) is of the thoughts and opinions that Surrogate advertising isn't only misleading, but also presents incorrect and dishonest information in many cases. It has a very negative influence on the markets all together. With so much widespread of surrogate advertising and its own ill effects, it's time to tackle the situation and strict regulatory procedures should maintain place to curb such practice.
Chander and Sharma in 2006, tried out to review the perception of men and women towards surrogate advertising by using a statistical tool factor evaluation. The results of these research were astonishing as they found out that the in general, the perceptions that govern the attitude of folks towards these advertising is much on the negative aspect alternatively than being on the positive part. They neither liked the advertising nor the favoured them. A large percentage of the respondents believed that surrogate advertising is anti social as it tries to promote the product that is normally considered as damaging for the culture, it promotes incorrect impressions and attempts to fool the customer insulting customer intellect, brings about moral degradation and is also deceptive. However a few respondents had taken surrogate advertisements as a means of fair practice, engaging and associated it with modern life style. A set of respondents were completely unaware of the phenomena of surrogate advertising while a few others were baffled about the same. This research resulted in the conclusion that whatsoever will be the positive perceptions disclosed, still a lot of people identified surrogate advertising as negative, unethical and immoral.
Sally and Jane also does an extremely interesting research on advertising of alcohol. They divided their review into two areas. Inside the first section the researcher establishes the hypothesis that alcoholic beverages advertising is the ultimate driver for overall usage and this advertising alone causes the expansion of markets. Inside the other section the creators first identify the main element correlates of the liquor consumption in the united kingdom and then quantified them. They built independent econometric models for young people between 18-24 years and then for those over 25, to be able to consider the declare that liquor advertising is targeted at increasing usage among youths. They figured consumption of alcoholic beverages among this group 18-24 years is correlated with trade marketing promotions and the increasing development for in-home taking in. On the other hand consumption of alcohol among 25 years and above relates to charges issues, price being a factor for both price by contending categories as well as the general price level of liquor as a item. However, no conclusions could be attracted to prove any sort of statistical marriage between alcohol advertising and its consumption for either generation.
Rutter Jeni and D'Souza Culora Tania in their work "Tobacco advertising legislations puts all brand in danger" (2004) tried to understand how companies could inadvertently find themselves into trouble if their hallmark or brand is regarded as to market the negative products since it is equivalent or similar to a brand known for the negative product. They answered various questions looking at all the possible implications for non-tobacco companies of the Tobacco Advertising and Advertising Directive.
Formulation of objectives
To enlist the many perceptual factors that influences the frame of mind of consumers into the surrogate advertising campaign and in turn the merchandise.
To understand whether the advertising of surrogate of the same brand leads to the recall of original product?
The whole research will be divided in two parts i. e. the supplementary research and the primary research to create insights about surrogate advertising.
Secondary Research framework
A qualitative exploratory research of existing techniques in neuro-scientific surrogate advertising, their purpose and the evaluation standards used to gauge the success of such advertising.
Primary Research framework
The research will be conducted on the people from of Mumbai, Delhi and Ahmedabad. The method used will be interviews with people who are exposed to surrogate advertising. I plan to take 10 in-depth interviews which will be the part of my qualitative research to generate insights. However to judge the validity and weightage of the insights produced, you will see questionnaires that'll be filled up by 120 respondents. The respondents for both qualitative and the quantitative research includes both, the consumers as well as the non-consumers of the merchandise whose advertising is suspended. The classification of the respondents sample is given in the desk below.
No. Of Respondents
Delhi - 40
Male - 80
Mumbai - 40
Female - 40
Ahmedabad - 40
I also intend to interview people from the liquor and the tobacco industry. As far as possible, I shall try and interview Minds of Marketing or Brand professionals in the concerned company. If at all, they are not available I shall try and get information from others in the company at key positions who are involved in decision making regarding advertising strategies. The companies I am looking for interviews are -
With these folks who are at key positions of these organisations, I do not feel that a questionnaire would be a good idea, therefore i intend to get information in a far more casual way about the value and reasoning of surrogate advertising. Also, what kind of techniques they employ to evaluate the profits on return in surrogate advertising.
Plan of Data Examination:
The interview replies from the respondents shall be compiled as well as the developments from the review of varied respondents will be tabulated. Also the information from the review as well as interview from both - the respondents as well as the industry experts will be analysed to gather trends and factors influencing the discharge of surrogate advertising as well as the factors influencing the behavior and perceptions of consumers who are exposed to such advertising. Based on the information on the features related to the surrogate advertising, an Importance-Performance matrix shall be tabulated which analyses customer perceptions and importance rankings. The quadrants of the matrix shall give an indicative division of attributes that have to be preserved, deemphasised and the ones which have to be upgraded. This classification can help formulate marketing activities and communication design for the marketers of those negative products.
Need for the analysis:
Advertising is a broad, sensitive and an extremely diverse subject. Its effect stretches from the contemporary society to the business enterprise, from economics to education. Within a country like India, a big part of the income of population is put in of unsafe products like cigarettes and alcohol which in the long run is resulting in a whole lot of health hazards. Based on the International Wine beverages and Spirit Plank, a liquor industry publication - "there will be a leap in the quantity of people achieving the legal drinking era of 25 within next few years", in such a case the challenge of health risk keeps growing and growing at a fairly fast pace. The intake of liquor and cigarettes is increasing annually worldwide. The government is continuously spending a humongous sum of money in order to curb the intake of such products and doing its better to ban all sorts of advertising and advertising related to such products. Alternatively the advertisers of tobacco and liquor, are consistently spending a huge amount of money in order to create understanding about their brand through whatever means possible. Vast amounts of rupees spent yearly on advertising of something where the advertiser is not allowed to display the name of the product.
Surrogate advertising has always been under controversies. Critics try to relate it with scam, immorality and manipulation and side effects. Most of these debates and research that are conducted about surrogate advertising does not include those who eventually serve as the most vital authority to judge the pros and cons from it i. e. the consumers. The knowledge of consumer is very important for all sorts of research associated with surrogate advertising. It's the consumer who eventually decides whether to do something upon exposure to a specific kind of advertising or not. Thus, I've undertaken this research to handle the deficiency of research in the field of surrogate advertising by checking out the intellects of consumers, their perceptions relating to this kind of advertising and their reaction to it. This analysis is merely not another research work in the pool of works that provide a moral judgement on the controversial nature of the problem, but targets significant, yet mainly ignored issue limited to the practice i. e. its impact on the heads of consumers.
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