The competition between Coca Cola and Pepsi

An industry research by Porters Five Pushes unveils that the soft drink industry has historically been favorable for positive success, as exemplified by Pepsi and Cokes financial outcomes. Soft drink industry is very profitable, more so for the concentrate providers than the bottler's. This is surprising considering the fact that product sold is a product which could even be produced easily. There are many known reasons for this, using the five pushes analysis we can obviously show how each push contributes the success of the industry.

Threat of new entrants

Entering bottling, meanwhile, would require considerable capital investment, which would deter access.

although the CP industry is not very capital extensive, other barriers would prevent entrance. Through their DSD practices, these companies experienced intimate relationships with the retail channels and can protect their positions effectively through discounting or other practices.

It would be practically impossible for the new CP or a fresh bottler to enter the industry. New CPs would have to overcome the great marketing muscle and market presence of Coke, Pepsi, and some others, who got established brands that were up to a hundred years old.

Companies which have a door to door distribution channel in place like snack companies could choose to diversify into soda industry

Switching costs are low for consumers who associated risk very little by hoping new brands or


Barriers to accessibility are relatively high, though, with large advertising costs and competitive brand commitment to big players like Coca-Cola and Pepsi

The drinks with high development and high hoopla are non-carbonated beverages such as juice drinks, sports beverages, tea-based drinks, dairy-based beverages, and especially bottled water

Bargaining power of buyers

through five main stations: food stores, convenience and gas, fountain, vending, and mass merchandisers (key part of "Other" in "Cola Wars" circumstance)

Bottlers own a developing and sales procedure within an exclusive geographic territory, with rights granted in perpetuity by the franchiser, at the mercy of termination only in the event of default by the bottler

1980 Soft Drink Interbrand Competition Action conserved the right of CPs to give exclusive territories to their bottlers, giving less bargaining power to Bottler's buyers since there is no option supplier

Bottlers are locked into agreements that grant CPs the right to established prices and other terms of sale

Bottlers are permitted to deal with the non-cola brands of other Cps at their discretion

Bottlers are also given freedom in choosing if to carry new beverages introduced by the CPs but cannot carry straight competitive brands

Competition for brand shelf space in retail programs gives some bargaining power back to buyers

Threat of alternative products

Through the first 1960s, carbonated drinks were synonymous with "colas" in your brain of consumers.

In the 1980s and 1990s Coffee, tea, drinking water, juices, sports refreshments, distilled spirits became more popular

Efforts to lessen threat

Bottlers: Increased capital investment and development of management skills

Concentrate: diversification

Proliferation in the amount of brands did threaten the profitability of bottlers through 1986, as they more recurrent brand set-ups, increased capital investment, and development of special management skills for more technical manufacturing functions and distribution. Bottlers could actually overcome these functional challenges through consolidation to attain economies of scale. Overall, because of the CPs efforts in diversification, however, substitutes became less of an threat.

Bargaining electric power of suppliers

Sugar and water are main elements. Corn syrup became cheaper in 1980's.

With an enormous supply of inexpensive lightweight aluminum in the first 1990s and several can companies rivalling for deals with bottlers, can suppliers experienced very little dealer power.

Coke and Pepsi effectively further reduced the supplier of aluminum can makers by negotiating with respect to their bottlers, thereby reducing the number of major contracts open to two. With an increase of than two companies vying for these contracts, Coke and Pepsi could actually negotiate extremely advantageous agreements. In the plastic bottle business, again there have been more suppliers than major deals, so direct negotiation by the CPs was again able to reducing supplier ability.

Concentrate makers (CPs) negotiate directly with bottlers' major suppliers -especially sweetener and packaging suppliers - to encourage reliable supply, faster delivery, and lower prices

Coca-Cola and Pepsi are among the list of metallic can industry's greatest customers and keep maintaining relationships with more than one supplier, supplying these suppliers less bargaining electric power due to the availability of substitute suppliers

Metal cans make up a lot of the bottlers' packed product (60%), followed by plastic containers (38%) and goblet bottles (2%)

Rivalry among existing competitors


Attacking hinders profitability

Price wars resulted in weak brand commitment and eroded margins for both companies in the 1980s. The Pepsi Obstacle affected market show without hampering per circumstance success, as Pepsi was able to compete on qualities apart from price.

Industry is largely consolidated with two major players and a few smaller competitors like Cadbury Schweppes, making the firms interdependent

International demand for carbonated soft drinks keeps growing, but local demand is slowing down substantially

Exit obstacles are high for bottlers with expensive equipment, moderate for focus producers

Advertising finances are high, customers are affected by brand perceptions

1: Why, historically, has the soft drink industry been so profitable?

a. Since 1970 usage grew by typically 3%

b. From 1975 to 1995 both Coke and Pepsi achieve average annual growth of

around 10%

c. American's drank more soda than other beverage

d. Head-to-Head Competition between both Coke and Pepsi strengthened brand

recognition of each other. This assumes that marketing put into profits

rather than eating them up.

e. Very large market show. 53% in 12 months 2000.

f. Average 10. 65% online earnings in sales for both Pepsi and Coke.

2: Compare the economics of the focus business compared to that of the bottling business. Why is the profitability so different?

The fundamental difference between CPs and bottlers is added value. The largest way to obtain added value for CPs is their proprietary, top quality products.

Coca-Cola and Pepsi have both decided to operate mostly in the creation of soft drink syrup while leaving unbiased bottlers with a more competitive portion of the industry

a. Concentrate business: Concentrate makers were reliant on the Pepsi and Coke bottling network to disperse their products. Starting and maintaining a concentrate manufacturing facility involved little capital investment in machinery, over head, and labor. Significant costs were for advertising, promotion, general market trends, and bottler relations. Manufacturers negotiated with bottlers' major suppliers. One stock could serve the whole United states

b. Bottlers: Purchased focus, added carbonated drinking water, added corn syrup, bottled it, and shipped it to customer accounts. Gross Profits were high but functioning margins were razor thing. Bottlers managed merchandising. Bottler's could also work with other non-cola brands.

From Display 5, an average concentrate producer's gross profit is 83% compared to 35% for a typical bottler. In the same way, pretax income for a focus manufacturer is 35% and it is 9% for a bottler. The COGS for a focus manufacturer is significantly less than of a bottler (65% of Net Sales). Packaging is 50 percent and focus is one-third of bottler's COGS. In addition to higher COGS, bottlers are liable fo redelivering the product to the clients, which entail delivery personnel placing and controlling the CSD in the store. The associated costs are typically around 21%. On the other hand, the significant cost for a focus producer originates from marketing and advertising expenses (39%). So the success of the focus business is evidently higher, almost four times, than that of bottlers, even though concentrate producers have quite high marketing and advertising expense.

Compared to concentrate production, soda bottling is not so profitable. The concentrate business is prosperous as a result of Coke and Pepsi duopoly and their subsequent power over purchasers and suppliers. The companies have the ability to maintain profitable rates for their focus products. The bottling businesses suffer because they haven't any bargaining power with their suppliers and diminishing electric power with their purchasers. Also, bottlers have high fixed costs related to operations, which the focus business avoids. It is important to understand the structural capital conditions of the sector. The returns have been used sensibly: one important strategy has been to enforce a decrease in numbers of produces to further grow market show and bargaining power. The bottlers have a significantly different starting position.

3: How has the competition between Coke and Pepsi influenced the industry's profits?

For over a century, extreme rivalry between duopoly Coke and Pepsi shaped the soft drink industry (mixed they are 73% of the market share). Essentially the most intense fights of the cola wars were fought in the $60 billion industry in the USA, where in fact the average American consumes 53 gallons of carbonated carbonated drinks per time. in a carefully waged competitive struggle, from 1975 to 1995 both Coke and Pepsi got achieved average total annual growth of around 10% as both US and worldwide carbonated soft drink consumption consistently lifted. This warm situation was threatened in the past due 1990s, when US intake dropped for just two consecutive years and worldwide shipments slowed for both Coke and Pepsi.

Globalization provides Coke and Pepsi with both unique obstacles as well as opportunities at the same time. To certain scope globalization has altered the industry framework as a result of next factors.

Rivalry Strength: Coke has been more prominent (53% of market share in 1999). in the international market compared to Pepsi (21% of market talk about in 1999) This is attributed to the actual fact that it had taken good thing about Pepsi entering the markets later and has set up its bottler's and distribution sites especially in developed markets. This has put Pepsi at a substantial disadvantage set alongside the US Market.

Pepsi is however trying to counter this by rivalling more aggressively in the appearing economies where the dominance of Coke is not as pronounced, While using growth in growing markets significantly likely to exceed the developed market segments the rivalry internationally is going to be more pronounced.

Barriers to Admittance: Obstacles to entry aren't as strong in appearing markets and it'll become more challenging to Coke and Pepsi, where they might have to deal with regulatory challenges, social and any existing competition who've their distribution systems already set up. The will lack the clout which have with the bottler's in america.

Suppliers: Because the natural material's are goods there must be no problems on this front this is not any different

Customers: Internationally suppliers and fountain sales will be weaker as they are not consolidated, like in america Market. This will provide Coke and Pepsi more clout and costs power with the buyers

Substitutes: Since many of the markets are culturally very different and vast amounts of substitutes are available, added to the actual fact that carbonated products aren't the first selections to quench thirst in these civilizations present additional significant obstacles.

4: Can Coke and Pepsi sustain their profits in the wake of flattening demand and the growing recognition of non carbonated beverages?

a. It should not be considered a problem to support their gains through another decade. The greater important question is if they can support their historical rate of growth. To take action they have to look for new marketplaces and increase usage in currently developing market segments such as China and India

b. I would suggest Coke to concentrate on its appearing international market. I'd also encourage Coke to expand their offerings. I believe Coke made a serious blunder when they failed to get Quaker Oats and with it the Gatorade Athletics Drink line. If Coke targets several beverage offerings they can leverage their inside bottling and syndication infrastructure. Different types of beverages will keep Coke's overall income intact when there's a transfer in consumer preference, such as a shift from soft drinks to more healthy alternatives (Think about the result Atkins experienced on the meals industry)

c. For Pepsi I would basically recommend a similar thing as Coke. I'd encourage Pepsi to give attention to its type of soda alternatives, which appear to truly have a much more robust market share than Coke's lines. I would encourage Pepsi to only compete with Coke when it's profitable to take action.

The industry structure for several decades has been kept intact with no new threats from new competition no major changes show up on the radar line

This industry does not have a great deal of menace from disruptive pushes in technology.

Coke and Pepsi have been around in the business enterprise long enough to build up great deal of brand equity which can support them for a long time and allow them to use the brand equity when they diversify their business more easily by leveraging the brand.

Globalization has provided a increase to the folks from the emerging economies to go up the economical ladder. This opens up huge chance of these firms

Per capita use in the growing economies is very small set alongside the US market so there is certainly huge potential for growth.

Coke and Pepsi can diversify into non-carbonated refreshments to counter the flattening demand in the soda pops. This will provide diversification options and offer an possibility to grow.

Industry should be proactive about growing health concerns in US Market

1. Should continue to lobby FDA to avoid caffeine-warning labels

2. Should promote exercise through sponsoring competitive athletics tournaments

B. Companies need to refocus energies on advertising to rejuvenate industry and to fuel

product demand both domestically and abroad (See Display 3)

C. Cola industry market leaders, Coca-Cola and Pepsi, should practice game theory to better

understand their competitive market environment

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