The main methods of procurement in the industrial...

The main methods of procurement in the industrial market. Factors shaping purchasing behavior

In general, buyers purchase on the B2B market in the following main ways.

1. Purchases by Pattern are used when purchasing standardized simple products, usually universal with a relatively low price. In this case, the risk of the buyer is fairly minimal, so the purchase can be carried out on the model.

2. Purchases when using a personal inspection are used when purchasing heterogeneous products, where suppliers' offers have differences in properties and characteristics, such as residential buildings.

3. Purchases using specifications (exact list of required product characteristics) are used to purchase non-standard products that have special properties that are important to customers (for example, purchase of special equipment) .

4. Purchases using the contract is applied in the event of a sufficiently long period of the buyer's relationship with the supplier or when it is possible to accurately provide for all requirements of the buyer in relation to the products.

There are several models of ways of purchasing in the B2B market.

1. Model Company Behavior in Purchasing Webster and Wind is quite universal and often used on the B2B market. The actions of members of the purchasing center are influenced by various factors whose actions can be described by the following equation:


where B is the purchase behavior; I - individual characteristics; G - group characteristics; About - organizational factors; E - macro environment factors.

In this case, each group of factors can influence an entire set of values, associated in whole or in part with the decision to purchase. Accordingly, the equation will look like this:


where t is a variable: nt is a variable that does not belong to the process of solving a specific task 10.5).

Table 10.5

Factors influencing purchase decisions


Variables that relate to the purchasing decision process

Variables that are not related to the purchasing decision process


Getting the best product characteristics

Values ​​of the member of the purchasing center


Generation of specifications by all members of the purchasing center

Interaction of members of the purchasing center outside the purchasing decision process


Company Quality Policy

The company's communication policy


macro environment

Trends in the development of the market situation

The influence of political factors, especially in the pre-election period

Within the framework of the general model, some separate types are distinguished.

1. Models , targeted solutions for specific tasks:

model "minimum price" assumes a situation where the company aspires to the maximum profit, and can not influence the price, because it is in the market of perfect competition. Accordingly, the company acquires all resources at the minimum price, while striving to use them most effectively. In this case, the buyer is fully provided with information on alternatives and has access to the products of all competitors. This model, as a rule, operates in agricultural markets, which are closest to the markets of perfect competition;

model smallest total cost is a modification of the minimum price model that takes into account all costs, including those that already occur in the process of product functioning;

rational buyer model assumes the buyer's choice of limited rationality, focusing on the quality, properties and characteristics of products, as well as terms of delivery and payment;


the limited option model characterizes the choice of the buyer as limited, from a certain number of specific sellers designated by the purchasing center (usually from existing sellers).

2. Models , are not task-oriented:

the model self-elevation is applied in a competitive market, with no distinct differences between the products of different sellers when buyers use their special position among sellers;

model ego-enrichment involves influencing the personal qualities of members of the purchasing center of the buyer, i.e., . to the rational choice to add an emotional element;

the model perceived risk characterizes the buyer's inclination to cooperate with a constant supplier, since he perceives this risk as minimal. Accordingly, new suppliers tend to reduce perceived risk during the negotiations, by ensuring the fulfillment of certain obligations;

the model double interaction characterizes the role expectations, due to which the conclusion of the transaction is most likely when the negotiators have similar character traits. This situation is formed due to the fact that the buyer expects a certain behavior and vice versa. At the same time, if expectations of behavior are not justified, then negotiations may not lead to the conclusion of a transaction;

model horizontal relations assumes that the negotiator is the provider and his interaction with other negotiators. So, in the course of negotiations, the tactics of the supplier, with the help of which he influences the negotiators, is important,

assumes that the membership of the purchasing center is limited, it is therefore important to determine the role of members of the purchasing center and their relationship, including the structure subordination. And then identify the decision-makers (decision-makers) to determine the mechanism of the relationship.

3. Complex models:

decision-making model characterizes the purchasing decision as a complex multi-stage process involving all members of the purchasing center, and therefore takes into account the maximum possible factors influence on this process;

model competence - activity involves integrating the steps of the purchase decision process with possible organizational and personal factors that influence this process;

the model procurement process grid " involves analyzing the eight steps in the purchasing decision process (Table 10.6).

Table 10.6

Purchase Procurement Grid

Stages of the purchasing decision process

Re-buy unchanged

Repeated purchase with changes



Determining the need



Determination of the characteristic of the required product and its quantity




Description of the characteristic of the required product and its quantity




Finding suppliers



Receiving vendor proposals



Analyzing vendor proposals



Provider Selection



Evaluation of delivered products




This grid is an imitation of the process that allows you to influence the changes in the parameters of the procurement decision process itself;

Dickson's model describes the actions that need to be taken during the purchase process.

In general, the factors influencing the procurement decision process are shown in Fig. 10.14.

Procurement decision process

Fig. 10.14. Procurement decision process

Analyzing the list of factors acting on the procurement decision-making process, one should note the rationality of the buyer's behavior in the B2B market and his objective assessment of all factors, especially economic factors.

thematic pictures

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