The role of marketing in the modernization of higher education...

The role of marketing in the modernization of higher education

Objective need for modernization of the education system

In the XXI century. education becomes a priority in the development of the state and society, as it ensures the country's social stability, its national security, economic growth, competitiveness and investment attractiveness. According to Vladimir Putin, "in the era of globalization and new technologies, education is not just a social sphere, it is an investment in the future of the country".

These provisions predetermined the need to modernize the United States educational system - significant changes in the organization of higher school management in order to interact state and society to achieve dynamic development and high quality education. Modernization of the education system is also a necessary condition for the formation of an innovative economy.

In accordance with this, the strategic goal of the state policy in the field of education is to increase the availability of quality education that meets the requirements of a modernized economy.

With respect to the present stage of the development of the United States, this means: ensuring access to quality general education, improving the quality of vocational education, developing a modern system of continuous vocational education, increasing the investment attractiveness of the education sector.

Since the beginning of transition to market relations, higher school has experienced more than one reform. However, today specialists of higher professional education prefer to talk about the forthcoming modernization, and not the education reform.

Reform is a transformation, reconstruction, and modernization is a change in accordance with the requirements of modernity. Education has already passed the stage of democratic reconstruction in the early 1990s, as reflected in the US Act No. 326-1 of July 10, 1992, "On Education," but it still lags far behind modern requirements and therefore needs profound modernization.

Modernization of the system of higher education is associated, first of all, with a profound update of its content. The existing curricula and programs of universities, despite their constant adjustments, largely reflect the information-extensive approach to the formation of the content of education and the command-administrative style of management of the educational process. They do not take into account the stages of the general cultural and professional development of the personality of the future specialist, they orient the study at the university on subject-disconnected training to the detriment of the overall development of the personality of the future young specialist, do not stimulate students to self-education, and limit the ability to take into account specific features in the situation of social globalism. At present, modernization of education is becoming a necessary condition for the further development of society as a whole.

In many countries of the world there is also a reform of the educational system, the basis of which was the process of globalization in all spheres of human activity, which led to new requirements for the role of education. This was facilitated by a sharp increase in the need for education. Especially high rates of growth in the number of students are observed in emerging economies, such as China, Brazil, Argentina, India, etc.

The following factors influence the process of globalization of the market of educational services of universities:

• Strengthening of international relations;

• the growth of international competition;

• the unevenness of the scale of world development and the consolidation of hierarchical globalization in the international economic space;

• Strengthening the role in the world economy of the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, which changes the direction of educational flows and influences the choice of a competitive position in the international division of labor.

Reforms in the United States are carried out under conditions of radical political, social and economic transformations. The system of education and training, inherited from the USSR, which is a product of centralized planning and political control, has undergone significant changes. The development of a market economy in the country and the limited state investment make an impact on the whole system of education and professional training of specialists.

In the foreign practice of reforming education, much attention is paid to the terms and stages of education. This is confirmed by the materials of the Lisbon Convention (1997), the Sorbonne (1998) and the Bologna Declarations (1999), in accordance with which work is being carried out to formulate common principles of multilevel training and an evaluation system on the world market of educational services. The final result of this process should be a unified educational standard for all 47 member countries and mutual recognition of educational diplomas.

The basic principles of building a single educational space in Europe:

• Introduction of a two-level structure of the educational process with the levels of bachelor and master's degrees in national higher education systems of European countries;

• introduction of the accounting of the academic load in credit units (credits);

• comparability and recognition of diplomas;

• Expansion of the process of international cooperation and mobility of students, teachers of European universities;

• the establishment of a unified methodology for measuring the learning process, creating an integrated system for assessing and securing the quality of higher education in Europe;

• extensive use of information and communication technology in the educational process;

• improving the quality of teaching foreign languages.

The long-term objective of the Bologna Process is to increase the competitiveness of European higher education in the world and the mobility of citizens.

Entering into a single educational space and receiving recognition of United States educational diplomas by the countries of the European community put forward new requirements to the quality of education, which confirms the objective necessity of improving the quality of training of United States specialists. The current level of the quality of education must be brought into line with the current and future needs of the individual, society and the state. In its turn, higher education is a factor in the formation of a new quality of the economy of the country and the whole society, which is confirmed by the interconnection and interaction of the country's economy and educational potential.

In addition, entry into a single legal field will inevitably affect organizational forms and educational technologies. All this determines the continuous process of updating knowledge, increasing professionalism, developing the personality, which is realized in educational systems.

A feature of continuing education is the continuity and integration of educational programs at various levels, starting with pre-school education. In this regard, continuing education should be seen as a principle of education, ensuring the development of the individual. Continuous education is a single, long-term process, based on the continuity and consistency of multi-level education.

The need for continuous education in the period of active labor of an individual is due to the following reasons:

• fast aging professional knowledge;

• lack of a mechanism for regulating the quantitative and structural composition of staff;

• Population migration;

• a change in the infrastructure of the economic potential and the competitive environment.

Continuous education provides a person with ample opportunities for self-development and self-education throughout life, supporting his desire for self-improvement.

According to the Parkinson law, the head passes a long professional path, and in order to be successful and correspond to the phases of responsibility, authority, achievements, awards, etc., he must constantly improve his qualifications.

Currently, in our country the training of top-level professional staff is carried out in 92 directions and 443 specialties, but not all graduates will be in demand in accordance with the education received, not everyone will have enough knowledge received in the university at the stage of basic education. In addition, every four years there comes a period of "half-life of competence", with 50% of knowledge becoming obsolete, which requires their updating. According to American experts, for an able-bodied period, an engineer needs to undergo a refresher course eight times, otherwise employers will have to replace specialists every five years.

The implementation of the principles of continuous education is associated with the activation of the full-time correspondence form of study and external studies.

An additional role in the system of continuing education is played by additional vocational education, which provides professional development that allows solving general non-core specific problems arising in practical activities. After receiving a higher technical education, the student should understand that knowledge of a foreign language, economics, management is necessary for career growth. Therefore, additional education is necessary both in obtaining the basic (profile) education, and in the conditions of practical activity (postgraduate education).

As a result of modernization, the United States education system as one of the most important elements of the country's socio-economic development should turn into an attractive and open area for investment. Investment attractiveness should be ensured by efficiency of operations, transparency of financial flows, public participation in the management of education, an independent evaluation of the quality of education at all levels of the educational system.

The company's investment in education will be due primarily to the effectiveness of budget financing in this area. Without the introduction of new financial mechanisms, it is impossible to ensure the inflow of additional extrabudgetary funds into education. The main condition for investing in education is to increase its human resources, ensuring high quality of education and the introduction of innovative educational technologies. The inflow of young promising personnel into education is possible only when wages in this sphere are competitive with respect to other sectors. Investment attractiveness of education will directly depend on the innovative nature of the development of the educational sphere, the integration of scientific, educational and practical activities, the integration of education in the national innovation system.

Based on the foregoing, we should focus on the evolutionary changes in higher education, due to socio-economic and political changes in our country. In Table. 1.1 reflects the main positions on which there have been significant changes in comparison with the pre-reform period.

Table 1.1. Evolutionary transformations in the sphere of higher professional education

The pre-reform period

Characteristic features

Social and economic consequences

Expensive principle of extensive development

Meeting the challenges of the general literacy of the population, the inaccessibility of university education for rural and peripheral youth

Rigid centralized management of universities

Limit the activity of universities in making independent decisions

Budgetary funding for academic and research activities

It did not help to reduce labor intensity and material intensity of the educational process and improve the efficiency of education

Securing students' practice places on an ongoing basis

Ensured a high level of consolidation of theoretical knowledge

Alumni Scheduling

Excluded the unemployment of graduates, often was forced, which reduced the activity of young professionals

The period of formation of market relations

Characteristic features

Social and economic consequences

Providing autonomous freedom to higher education institutions

Contributed to the acquisition of significant independence, both in terms of conducting the educational and pedagogical process, and in terms of economic activity, increasing activity and initiative in the development of the material and technical base, international relations, the establishment of branches and representative offices, etc.

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Establishment of non-state educational institutions

Contributed to the development of a competitive environment in higher education. Expands opportunities for choosing a specialty, brought universities closer to places of residence of students, etc. Allows to implement the principle of accessibility of higher education

Introduction of state educational standards of the first and second generations and development of standards of the third generation

Defines the mandatory minimum content of basic educational programs, the maximum amount of training load of students, the requirements for the level of training graduates. Forms the competence of graduates

Changing the requirements for the status of educational institutions. Creating a new type of university

It has led to the emergence of industry universities along with traditional (classical), the creation of virtual and teleuniversitet, federal, innovative and national research universities

The signing of the Bologna Agreement and entry into a single European space for higher education

Promotes the comparability of higher education degrees. Introduction of an appendix to the diploma providing employment opportunities for European citizens, and the introduction of a two-tier system of education (undergraduate and graduate programs). The introduction of the European credit transfer system, increasing the mobility of students and teaching staff, the introduction of intra-university quality control systems and the expansion of interuniversity cooperation

Implementation of a multi-level and flexible system of continuing education

Provides the opportunity for any applicant to get an education of the appropriate degree (bachelor, specialist, master) up to the highest degree

Introduction by state universities of additional fee-based educational services

Promotes increased access to education. Provides additional funds for the development of the material and technical base, wages, utilities, etc.

Application of new computer and telecommunication technologies

Promotes the expansion of the market for educational services, access to education (distance learning, etc.)

Introduction of innovative educational technologies

Promotes the development of students' creative potential, activates attention, instills skills for scientific discussion, increases interest in the subject (active teaching methods)

Reduction (by standards) of the duration of practical training

Reduces the quality of training specialists

Forming the trends of students' completion, their intersectoral migration. Socio-demographic shifts in the composition of students

Increases the share of students in the humanities and social sciences. Reduces the proportion of migrants to Russia, both from the near and far abroad

Reduction of budgetary financing of educational and scientific activity of universities

Reduces financial sustainability of universities. Decreases solvency. Worsens the material and technical base.

Worsens the economic and social situation of university personnel. Reduces the volume of university scientific research, etc.

Elimination of graduate distribution system by institutions of higher professional education

Increases competition in the labor market. Reduces the responsibility of universities to users of personnel for the quality of training specialists. Promotes unemployment of graduates, causes employment not on a specialty

Marketing Development in Higher Education

Promotes the creation and successful promotion of educational products and services, improving the quality of education, meeting the needs of consumers in educational services, etc.

Based on the information in Table. 1.1, we can conclude: socio-economic and political changes in society and the evolution of higher education have had

both positive and negative impact on training.

The many-sided consequences of the transformations served as a prerequisite for the formation of more modern quality management mechanisms for training specialists, one of which is marketing.

The wide application of marketing in the field of higher education will help to improve the quality and expand the range of educational services, will help meet the needs of consumers in this field more diverse and ultimately contribute to raising the level of education in society to a higher level.

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