In this newspaper I will create the significance of global brands and the role they play in our daily lives. I'll then talk about a few lately popularized marketing tools being employed by organisations. This newspaper will discuss the issue of consumer resistance confronted by global brands. I will be mentioned various principles with true to life examples with respect to consumer level of resistance. Further the role of the organisation will be reviewed when confronted with level of resistance from the consumers and the actions organisations ingest order to handle this resistance, this is often referred to as cooptation theory. I'd justify my discussion by making use of real life instances and from case studies.
A brand is a name or a symbol attached to a product which helps in signifying its source (Aaker 1996). The brand adds value to something regarding its brand. Popular brands like Coca Cola, Yahoo, Apple, and, McDonalds are some of the most recognizable brand names across the world (Interbrand, 2010). Global brands in existence today have been able to transcend cultural boundaries and have prevailed in embedding into different ethnicities, to an degree of becoming social icons using subcultures. The value attached to the brand name can even be referred to as brand collateral. Aaker (1991) has defined the word of brand collateral as several property and liabilities mounted on the brand, which either add or subtract value to the existing value provided by the merchandise or service to the client. Aaker (1991) continues on to include that a few of the global brands have such high brand collateral that their total assets combined are or less value than the brand name. Creating a strong brand is the purpose of many of today's organisations, but it is a period consuming and challenging process especially because of unpredictability and growing competition on the market. Creating a strong brand name isn't just a marketing functions but it includes various other areas of business as well such as corporate culture, hierarchy, working conditions etc. In some instances a brand symbol might be much better than a brand; even a mark would do for the audience to identify the brand, an example of brands with popular symbolism is Nike's tick, McDonalds 'M' and Apple's bitten apple.
Branding has progressively more become one of the most notable priorities of modern organisations. It is an intensive process for the organisations to build a strong brand image in this competitive and progressively global market. Danesi (2006, p 91) explains " brands try to build and solidify a semiotic bridge between your product, media, and cultural performances". Marketing of brand name has been on the verge of growth on a worldwide level, and high marketing has led to certain brands learning to be a part of culture.
Branding is a pivoting feature of marketing. Over the years global brands have become substantially and are eventually becoming a part of our civilizations. Global Brands often use different tools of marketing to be able to infiltrate the heads of their market. Among the influential tools utilized by organisations to be able to infiltrate in their target market is recognized as 'Cultural Doping'. The goal of culture doping is to build a very strong brand image in the thoughts of the potential consumers of the merchandise, thus making the product an integral part of their subculture. A successful example of social doping done by a worldwide brand is McDonalds, where they have targeted children with Happy Meals. They offer a free complimentary toy with every Happy Meal that they sell. It has made Happy Meals a favourite among children. Parents have even attempted taking legal actions against McDonalds to avoid giving a free toy with happy meal (Reimer, M. 2011), but nothing has quit McDonald plus they continue this process of social doping making Happy Food a part of children's culture, therefore developing new needs and needs amongst. Alvesson provides critical information to the theory of social doping.
'The Argument of critical theory The assumption is that cultural customs and powerful realtors may create closure, freezing people into certain types of dependencies - to spiritual dogmas, to expertise (technocracy), to unconscious fantasies and procedures, to limiting and repressive conceptions of rationality and knowledge, also to ideologies that selectively and narrowly tie needs and needs to particular resources of satisfaction. Marketing as ethnic doping - the corporation as a socialization firm' (1993, p 302)
'Socialization is the procedure whereby individuals learn and comply with the principles, norms, taken-for-granted assumptions, conventions and capacities of the world and the social group to which they belong. The social doping metaphor suggests that management is mixed up in fostering and production of individuals. It is assumed that individuals develop beliefs, worth and identities which to a larger or lesser amount are shaped by the expected and unintended outcomes of the management of "demand". ' (Alvesson 1993, p 305)
Cultural doping is a relatively new term in the field of marketing highly emphasized in Alvesson's work.
Today's organisations are having a quantity of marketing techniques to stay in advance in this competitive global environment, and to minimize level of resistance from the consumers. Among these techniques is known as interpersonal marketing, as explained by Kotler (et al 2001) is when an organisation determines to be socially and ethically in charge with respect to their marketing activities, which minimizes the risk of consumer level of resistance.
"Sociable marketing is the design, execution, and control of programs computed to effect the acceptability of social ideas and involving things to consider of product planning, charges, communication, circulation, and marketing research"
(1971, p 5)
Thus it shows that communal marketing is not as simple as it looks. It is due to applying marketing ideas and techniques in order to increase interpersonal and economical value of something. It also is due to the social portrayal of the company in the consumer's brain, which is handed through marketing campaigns and other marketing related activities.
Another marketing tool which is now extensively popular has been utilized by a great deal of brands lately in order to create immediate buzz between the mark market, it is called Guerrilla marketing. Guerrilla marketing is a tool which is quite not the same as others within the arsenal of marketing. It really is a very low priced method in comparison with other mediums of marketing. It relies on giving offers on weekdays when normally sales are right down to attract new customers; it will build a more robust customer base over the years, by encouraging person to person by existing customers. Guerrilla marketing is also reliant on telephonic and e-mail marketing which also greatly assist in increasing the client foundation and are a very cheap way to obtain reaching potential clients. Guerrilla marketing usually employs unconventional methods to be able to spreads marketing information. Often strong Guerrilla marketing can lead to unstable results as its affectivity is hard to measure (Levinson JC 1984).
The term Cool Hunting is also related to a marketing tool being applied by brands, which will follow a certain subculture so the potential prospects can relate to the brand on a more customized. Often these brands have no great knowledge of these cultures, but still tend to change them in trust of wider acknowledgement or becoming a cultural icon. Actually these cultures originate from the street but many a times brands tend to decide on them up and begin mass production. These brands are often criticised by the people actually an integral part of that culture as brands have a tendency to globalize these civilizations searching for commercialisation.
In recent years global brands experienced more to offer to its consumers on an individual level. Strong brands have a tendency to build long lasting and profitable communal relations using its clients. Consumers will have more liberty to choose and represent themselves by making use of global brands, as these brands have a tendency to give you a certain image because of their popularity. Over the years co-creation from the consumers has also been increasing, where brands give the consumers an possibility to represent the brand by aiding them create something new.
Co-creation allows an individual customer to co-create unique experiences with a firm, which is key to unlocking new sources of competitive edge, unlike the traditional system, in which the firms selected the products and services they'll produce, organizations now found ways to pass on work to their consumers, which originally was done by the firms employees (Prahalad C. K. 2004).
Over the years browsing for efficient means of marketing, the development has shifted from a mass concentrating on strategy and much more directed towards focusing on a specific portion. This process had not been only changed by the marketers themselves but in actuality it came into being, with increased interaction backwards and forwards between your consumers and the marketers in the end resulting in the process being inspired by the consumers themselves. This isn't astonishing as the success of global brands like Apple is a result of not only good marketing strategies but strategies have been advanced which were inspired by consumers themselves. This has been possible anticipated to increasing communication and connections between businesses and its consumers. Since the introduction of sub cultures
The moving orientation within the marketing occupation from mass to section may give the impression that the introduction of market segmentation was only a top-down process, with all initiatives via marketers. It had been false; somewhat it was a more interactive process with potential consumers exerting affects on the marketing field.
Today brands have become increasingly strong with respect to cultural values, giving individuals an personal information just predicated on the brand they are employing. Some brands go so far as becoming social icons. BMW can be known as an example to be a social icon amongst generation X. It is often called 'Beamer' by its followers and the brand itself is so strong that it automatically provides person who is driving the automobile a higher public value and category. 'When marketers impact the demand for products they are impacting not only likes, would like, understandings and needs; they are also impacting the personalities and life trends. ' (Alvesson 1993, p 306) This declaration says us what brands are looking to achieve through these marketing tools. The main element to success for any brand is to make higher value in eye of the consumer regarding its competition and in exchange offer higher value as well to its customers. Global brands desire to be amongst ethnic icons, with a higher value and identification amidst our culture.
In the procedure of creating wide acknowledgement and becoming social icon through extensive marketing brands sometimes have problems with resistance from the public. From time to time big global brands experienced to face some type of level of resistance from its consumers or the critics. Level of resistance has been in various forms to boycott of products to vandalizing billboards. This notion of resisting against brands is also called as Cultural Jamming (Sandlin 2007). Duncombe (2002, p 5) has identified this idea as "culture that can be used, consciously or unconsciously, effectively or not, to withstand and/or change the prominent political, financial and/or social framework".
In response to why Cultural Jamming takes place against brands Storey (2006 p 171) declares "We need to see ourselves-all people, not just vanguard intellectuals-as effective individuals in culture: selecting, rejecting, making meanings, attributing value, resisting and, yes, being duped and manipulated". One of the most famous group involved with cultural jamming is a not for earnings company called Adbusters, which publishes a every month magazine concentrating on different global brands. The Adbusters summarize their company as "We live a global network of culture jammers and creative's attempting to change the way information flows, the way corporations wield electricity, and just how meaning is stated in our society" (Adbusters 2011).
Source: Rasool F. 2009
This photo gives us a good example of social jamming against global brands.
Culture jamming has gotten increased acceptance through person to person, with the development of networks and websites. Activists tend to change the announcements on the brands adverts, sometimes hosting online protests like 'buy nothing at all day'. In other words culture jamming "seeks to undermine the marketing rhetoric of multinational companies, specifically through [such] methods as multimedia hoaxing, corporate sabotage, billboard 'liberation, ' and brand infringement" (Harold, 2004, p. 190). Culture Jammers aim for mass media sources of advertisements of big brands on the foundation that they don't honestly depict the merchandise in their adverts. They avoid these brands as they have got the idea that brands only use marketing tools as propaganda for his or her own monetary passions, rather than looking after their customers.
In order to triumph over resistance brands may take two routes Co-optation or Coercion. Co-optation is where in fact the leading resistor or the group head is given a job in order to make an alteration which would help in resolving a concern. Where culture jamming starts taking a toll on commercial giants they tend to co-opt with their resistors in order to get over the dispute. Alternatively Coercion is when the dispute is fixed either through termination of the resistor or relocation, this on the other side leads up to increasing turmoil. Many global brands choose this option over cooptation as it is less frustrating and in the long run the power to make decision still lies at the hands, but coercion strategy may lead to less attractiveness of a brandname if negative press is generated.
Source: Adbusters 2011
An example of resistance amongst the consumers towards a worldwide brand is in the case of GAP, which is a clothing store. In popular culture people have linked the initials Space to being 'Gay and Proud'. Which is in fact not the case, it is merely a tools of level of resistance which folks have spread by word of mouth in order to lower the image of the brand.
Source: Nancy African american 2011
Nike is a ethnical icon in sports activities wear around the world for the past 2 decades. Despite its strong brand image and its huge sales worldwide, it arrived under criticism for making its labour work in poor and dangerous conditions and being lowly paid in addition. Nike factories were referred to as Sweatshops by the critics who stated that that they had underage children hired and were paid extremely low wages.
An example of level of resistance from consumers against global brands is of Nike, when a lot of individuals accused the company to carry out development under bad environment for its worker's in the factories. Since this issue, the brand has come under a lot of criticism for inhumanely dealing with its employees.
"Nike advertising and billboards have been subject to cultural jamming all around the world; however, there are some troubles the Culture Jammers face. The corporations and sources of ability that they assault may appropriate the Jammers own use of words to subvert their information and symbolic recommendations and actions" (Carty, V 2002 142). "For example, Nike Organization offered Green Party consultant and consumer activist Ralph Nader $25, 000 to appear in an ad for its Air 120 sneakers" (Carty, V 2002 142). This Television set commercial try out, as Nader refused to surface in the ad. "In another, more lucrative, stunt, Nike initiated a marketing campaign in Australia that presented a fraudulent campaigning organization, Lovers For Fair Sports (FFFF), supposedly fighting with each other for fairness in football by abolishing the unfair hi-tech Nike basketball boots" (Bernstein, A 1999 104). This step on-part of Nike was to imitate activist strategies; therefore, the billboards appeared to be produced by protesters.
Overall, "a few of Nike's responses would imply protests and ethnical jamming are having some influences on sales, and have definitely tarnished the business's image (Carty, V 2002 143). "The company has made some substantive concessions regarding its labor routines, and has purposefully well developed down its advertising campaigns (possibly the most notable being the substitution of the 'I Can'campaign for the 'Just Do It' label series)" (Carty, V 2002 143).
In this paper I introduced the importance of global brands and the role they play in our daily lives. Further, I discuss a few just lately popularized marketing tools being used by organizations. This newspaper also required an in-depth check out the issues of consumer level of resistance faced by global brands. To discuss the role of the business, and exactly how it deals with level of resistance from the consumers, I used Nike as an empirical example because of this essay.
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