Two Models Of B2b Marketing Essay

Business marketing is trading products by specific or organisation including commercial business, institutions, governments to other organisation or business who use those as components in existing products, resell them or use them as support for their procedure. This trade that take place between organizations have large impact on overall economy and also benefits customer. As business sales to other business it is called B2B or Business to Business Marketing.

Two models of B2B:

There are two models of B2B. They may be 1) Vertical B2B and 2) Midsection B2B.

Vertical B2B: Vertical B2B is business oriented or for developing. Vertical B2B may take two varieties either upstream or downstream. In upstream model B2B starts from the manufacturer side after that it grows to up to commercial merchants. For instance for Dell pcs to sell their laptop they have to manufacture the laptop computers. For that they will need parts from supplier of those chips, mother boards, devices which is manufactured to be sold B2B. On the other hand downstream B2B gets to from developer to distributor. For example Cisco advertising its products and services to other business or commercial industries.

Middle B2B Market: In an another online marketing strategy Businesses 2 Business deal takes place via a middle stage layout. This business aspect and supply aspect trading occurs in a typical place. For example internet based sites Alibaba. com, China websites works as a middleman in the B2B marketing.

B2B in Commercial Sector:

B2B marketing in commercial sector is often revenue oriented and competitive. In commercial sector almost all of the purchasers are known to each other and almost all of the time they may have quite a while business relationship. Sales or trade offers are often distributed among these lenders. Marketing between companies are based on direct sales, telesales, direct mail etc. For example if Dell is advertising 500 notebook computers to a merchant like Personal computer World it'll contact the business via their channel and you will see exclusive offers only for Personal computer World. Sometimes businesses have to offer exclusivity to get extra business by channeling customers to a specific retailer.

B2B in Not for Profit Sector:

Not for profit sector generally presents community services via commercial public responsibility. Every business has their responsibility on the society where they operate. B2B marketing in the not for earnings sector deals with these responsibilities. For instance: Dell as part of their corporate social responsibilities runs recycle program where they might require bids to provide their products at a concession rate. These kind of marketing is the majority of the time available for participation. Communication channel is normally company website, newspapers etc.

B2B in Public Sector:

B2B in public sector deals with government or status had institutes. Businesses produce products to sell to these institutes. Marketing for this will normally privately done or sometimes these business can bet for getting the deal. Public sector includes Central government, local authority, hearth department, law enforcement and higher education institutes.

B2C Marketing:

B2C marketing is business to consumer marketing. This marketing handles marketing products to consumer. Consumer here is buyer of the merchandise which is not business related. B2C products are products and services like food, cloths, automobiles, phones, houses etc.

Difference between Business to Business and Consumer Marketing:

The divergence between business and consumer marketing may apparent but some pernicious difference with difficulties sometimes appears. Consumer marketing concentrate on prominent group via vendors and mass media whereas business marketing require lighter and even more lineal route of dispersion. In business marketing, negotiation process that happen between buyer and owner become personal in compare to consumer marketing (Dwyer and Tanner, 2006). Running a business marketing cover product promotion through advertising is performed by direct email or journal. As because advertising is limited, it hardly helpful for achieve sales telephone calls efficiently (Hutt and Speh, 2004).

Some opines that there surely is no difference between consumer marketing and business to business marketing because primary goal is marketing so it can be little subject to a person whether he/she choose consumer or business marketing. however the fact is that when a person buying a product for himself and when he purchasing products for his company differs. When marketing strategies are designed some fundamental factors looks. B2B rely on creating romantic relationship marketing exertion. If one wants to make B2B business concentrating on consumer then you will be charged money.

Figure : B2B vs B2C (Source: http://themarketingdirectors. wordpress. com/2010/02/15/b2b-vs-b2c-marketing-what-works-best-on-the-dance-floor/)

Important factors of Consumer marketing:

Consumer marketing have certain characteristics

The value of trade is maximized.

Target market area is large.

Product motivated.

Because of duplicating and imaging, brand identity is established.

Product price, want for product and product status are major facts for making mental buying decision.

Shorter sale routine as because of one-step buying process.

Establish merchandising.

The aim of business to consumer marketing is to commute consumers into clients as sharply and systematically. B2C companies employ the service of great deal of merchandising activities such as presentation, vouchers, store entry and also proffer tempt the prospective market to get. As mentioned previous Consumer marketing poses short sale cycle, because of this it needs to captivate what customer wishes. These agitate often proffer price decrease, special offer etc. Both in their retailers and Internet. To create selling a corporation product faster and properly to its consumer, companies choose online marketing. Through acquainting customer with company well-organized website, they sale their products. Shopping chart and price are talked about in this web site and consumer can buy product through an individual click.

Important factors of Business To Business Marketing:

Business to Business marketing emphasize on the following factors

Focus on relationship

Value of the partnership is maximized.

Target market is less targeted.

Because of multi-stair buying process, offer lengthy sales cycle

Personal relationship can be an important factor to stabiles brand id.

intellectual business decisiveness based on business value.

ensure educational and establish cognizance.

The aim of B2B marketing commute expectation into customer. Because of this this process is long. B2B company always give attention to establishing romance with customer through marketing activities and foster the partnership with its customer throughout the sales pattern. For example, if an organization to agitate through e-mail, then the company must need to make people understand about their product through their website. The product marketing involve telemarketing, Website, Magazine. Here sales agent chat over business prerequisite through press.

Critical Research of B2B and B2C marketing:

B2B markets are small, market sized made up of thousand sales leads but B2C market segments are larger in size where there are an incredible number of consumers as sales prospect

Purchasing process also varies. Purchasing timeframe for B2B is typically months and frequently takes more time to complete the complete purchasing process. B2C sales are for shorter period. This is as short as minutes ( for example impulse buy). Purchasing process is simpler in comparison to B2B.

Sales process for B2B is normally consultative selling. The procedure works in this way. First the business enterprise recognizes clients' needs and then produces a trust worthwhile romantic relationship. Sometimes there are 2 level sales force related first is vendors sales team and second circulation sales team. B2C sales on the other hands is immediately done to the client or with a retailer. Offering process is a lot traditional 'convincing the consumer' that they need to have the merchandise or service that needs to be sold.

B2B sales are higher solution purchase that range from thousand pounds to millions. B2C sales are typically less and limited by thousand pounds except: car, home etc.

The B2B sales decision dependant on consumer need and budget at hand so the decision that comes out tends to be logical. B2C decision is mainly emotional so the dependence on budget or need is supplementary.

Brand personality also differs in its characteristics. Brand identity is established through personal romantic relationships and consultative offering through the route. Using social press and advertising brand identification is established in B2C market.

Lifetime customer valuation is higher in B2B as because the sales volume level is higher and there will be possibility of duplicate sales to the same business or its associates. In case of B2C its less because of lower cost for shifting the merchandise and duplicate sales are fewer in statistics.

These critical factor are important for a small business to build its marketing strategy and practices. These helps to identify market and develop appropriate marketing concept.

Task 2

Before going through the impact macro economical change by using an organization's B2B marketing we have to know macro marketing environment.

Macro marketing Environment:

Macro marketing environment features all elements that regulate an organization, macro marketing environment forces can be divided into six part such as: economic, political, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal.

Economic environment integrate pricing plan, credit curve, salary. Each one of these make an impact on customer buying capability.

Political environment amalgamate governing agencies, rules and order to destined organization.

Socio-cultural environment is very important factor since it includes behaviour, analysis, orientation which will make a direct effect on taking marketing decisiveness.

Technological environment shows the catalyst that induce new products, new opportunity.

legal environment is a key environment factor which is necessary to take any decision. Be a part of trade organization really create decision lawfully.

Figure : Macro Environment

Because of globalization market environment is frequently changing. Such low hurdle poses greater hazard to the services that are to arrive the pipeline to the prevailing one. Though market environment is not familiar with exterior macro environment but still what they can do is to analyse market environment carefully. They must observe monetary change very carefully and then should make decision to explore their functionality.

In order to execute external environmental examination, organizations should check the following factors

analyse future hazard, opportunities i. e must perform SWOT research.

Appraisal of the type of the surroundings.

scrutinize environmental determines.

Identify their competitive position.

trace out main element of environmental forces.

Less consumer indicate little demand and when demand is significantly less than mean more work to speed up demand. To speed up demand, marketing is vital(Wormer, Bes thorn and Keefe 2007). However the fact is that if people purchase less product then marketer will spend less amount. Due to economical downtown in USA in 2001, advertising slipped by 9%, and Advertising on the internet by 27%. this possessed serious impact on B2B marketing as because of the consumers spending slowdown, the investment of business also decelerate.

because of the deceleration of branding and other marketing contour, there's a tendency of rising direct marketing. way of measuring of marketing ROI taken away with the reduction reduced amount of budget. Investment loan company Cowen and company overview previous six economic downturn and found a growing trend in direct marketing.

However, during financial tough economy in 2011, online marketing was beguiled by the break down of Internet world wide. in 2008, US online marketing reduced around $25. 8 billion. Roughly 7% decrement from earlier estimation. The primary consideration is that it's 23% higher than 2007 (Economic. , & Journal. 2007). We can say that because of economical slowdown macro environment is lessening in B2B marketing which is increasing. which means that it'll make diminution on mass advertising that communicate a product feature to its customer. We see relationship-oriented methodology such as e-mail, online community, search engine marketing etc.

Economic downtown can create opportunity for effective company that can convert marketing investment into revenue, as of little competition.

I have performed a case study on Costco Wholesale Corporation to observe impact of the macro economy on B2B marketing. It is a warehouse team that offer extensive selection of merchandising. It had been honored 5th biggest dealer in USA.

Company reaction during economic recession:

When economic tough economy occurs company decrease the price or they deduct cost. Pursuing factors enter into light during economic downtown. A short description is listed below


When a business gone through financial recession, they don't turn to weaken market advertise and remain completely reactive (samli, 2001). this process is really dangerous for an organization because in this example, customer search for better option. As economic rescission take place organizational competitiveness increase to allure their customer. To take action they have to spend money nevertheless they can't because of downturn. So therefore it downtown company income.

Price degradation:

At enough time of economical downtown, demand become less and customer not happy to invest a lot money to acquire a product. So company slowdown their price. it appears organizational congestion to meet small demand. But at the same time manufacturing cost continue to be same to keep better quality. Degradation of product price is a good way to speed up sale (Charan, 2009). But it continue, it will hamper inside organizational behavior as income will be lower. Staff satisfaction will be less achieved and will make an impact on recruitment new staff. It was estimated that In 1991, 1% land in product price triggered 5% declination of income in Western european company(Hart, Tindal 2009). If we eliminated Costco, then we will have it utilizes approx 142, 000 full time and part-time staff and their advertising amount is $88. 915 billion with a net income $1. 462 billion Zacks( Investment Research -, p. 12). It markets their product at a minimal price. This feature looks good in well economic condition. Costco does't take up multiple brand. They just reduce marketing cost. But as we mentioned earlier, it will not be neither effective nor productive during downturn because then several company will stand in the same collection and customer will decided to go with not better one but the best one. So to market their product in this example will need a bit more marketing.

Cutting Cost:

Recession in 1991 causes income slowdown by 65% (Blanchard, O. 1993). that shows because of recession companies are required to reduce cost in order to keep cash. At the time of financial slowdown, companies product promotional activity removed first because they fail to show quick final result that is attractive customers. Alternatively downsizing of customer support, prolonged product delivery treatment may degrade is popularity. Alternatively organization may well not consent to make their brand value by minimizing the price of the merchandise(Charan, 2009). Such minimizing price can cause devastating move. to avoid this proactive marketing is necessary which result productive instead of the increased loss of market productivity.

Opportunities and Danger from MARKET MELTDOWN for Costco

Not all the business enterprise suffer during monetary downfall. Big businesses can still take good thing about their size and market marriage to catch the attention of customers even in this challenging situation. Opportunities that can turn things around for Costco are the following

Keeping sooth: In monetary downtime it is better for the firms to increase PR networking. Additional support should come from aggressive marketing strategy. PR with a difficult marketing will ensure no consumer is lost to other businesses. Costco can still perform at its best by keeping existing connections and pushing those to buy their stock.

Adding Value: Add additional value to the existing products or services. This can help buyers to understand they are receiving more value for their money. Costco could work along with the manufacturers to grab discounted prices for B2B consumers.

Service: With a limited capital it is best to work on top notch B2B consumer service. This will enable businesses to give repeat order. For a huge business like Costco it is a fairly easy task. If indeed they can guarantee that their customers are pleased to have them as a distributor that would imply their rivals will feel the pressure not Costco.

Threats that Costo will have during economic crisis are listed below

Less cash flow: During this period often business have a problem with cashflow from business businesses. First businesses will spend money considering downturn and try to hold to cash. Businesses may have to get loan from lenders which the eye might limit their size of purchasing or procedure.

Layoff and Unemployment: One of the major conditions that businesses have is to get rid of employees to trim cost. While this can be bare minimum for Costco but yet you will see tendency of saving.

Global and Local Perspective:

Costo though located in US has also institutions in cross border. While US market will face the almost all of economic crisis yet somehow that will have severe impact on UK operations. But for a B2B business like Costco it can always capitalize on its plus points. From the united states businesses it can learn what sales and what not in this situations. Not necessarily which will be same in UK market yet somehow that gives an idea. Strategy building up would be the next level where working strategies are created to counter all the negatives encompassing the market. Close look should be given at other challengers. Communication is key here. PR departments can work on to accumulating relations and leads where marketing and sales office can capitalize on that. UK market might get tougher with several similar competition so adding value with services will improve business.


From the above mentioned discussion it has been clearly recognized B2B businesses have both benefits and disadvantage due to improve in macro environment. A solid marketing strategy helps an enterprise to standout but still perform at its best during toughest amount of business.

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