Types and types of innovation - Innovative marketing

Types and types of innovation

In carrying out innovative activities, modern companies tend to pursue the goal of long-term performance in the market. To achieve this global goal, the following specific tasks are realized:

• increase in market share;

• entering new target markets;

• creating the image of a flexible innovative company;

• prolongation or, conversely, reduction of the life cycle of the goods of the basic assortment;

• Diversification of activities.

Classification of innovation means the distribution of innovations to specific groups according to certain criteria. The construction of the classification scheme of innovations begins with the definition of classification characteristics. The classification feature is a distinctive feature of this group of innovations, its main feature.

The classification of innovations can be carried out according to different schemes, using different classification characteristics. The economic literature presents a variety of approaches to the classification of innovation, as well as to highlight its criteria.

Consider the existing classifiers of types and types of innovation.

The classification of innovation according to P. Doyle is based on the possibility of modeling innovative approaches to the concept of the product, new ways of doing business, expanding the marketing environment through new markets. Such methods include:

• New ways of doing business, which are innovative approaches to the supply of long-standing products and the maintenance of both "loyal" and new consumers;

• new old products, representing new ways of using products familiar to consumers;

• new markets that represent new consumer groups of products.

There is also an innovation classifier for the following features:

• importance (basic, improving, pseudoinnovations);

• Directivity (replacing, rationalizing, expanding);

• Place of implementation (branch of origin, industry of introduction, consumption sector);

• the depth of change (regeneration of original methods, change in quantity, regrouping, adaptive changes, new variant, new generation, new species, new genus);

• the developer (developed by the forces of the enterprise, external forces);

• the scale of distribution (for the creation of a new industry, application in all sectors);

• a place in the production process (the main product and technological, complementing the product and technology);

• the nature of the needs met (new needs, existing needs);

• the degree of novelty (based on a new scientific discovery, based on a new way of applying to long-discovered phenomena);

• time to market (innovation-leaders, innovation-followers);

• the reason for the occurrence (reactive, strategic);

• scope of application (technical, technological, organizational and managerial, information, social, etc.).

The importance of basic innovation , which implement large inventions and become the basis for the formation of new generations and directions of technology; innovation-improving , usually implementing small and medium-sized inventions and prevailing in the phases of the spread and stable development of the scientific and technical cycle; pseudo-innovation , aimed at partially improving obsolete generations of technology and technology.

In terms of impact, the process of production of innovation can be expanding (aimed at deep penetration into various industries and markets of available basic innovations), rationalizing (which are, in fact, close to the changes) and replacing (designed to replace old products or technologies with new ones based on the same function).

Classification of innovations based on the depth of the changes introduced allows one to consistently trace the transition from lower-level innovation to a higher level:

• regenerate the original properties of the system, save and update its existing functions;

• changing the quantitative properties of the system, regrouping the components of the system in order to improve its functioning;

• adaptive changes in the elements of the production system for the purpose of adapting to each other;

• The new option is the simplest qualitative change that goes beyond simple adaptive changes;

• The new generation - all or most of the properties of the system change, but the basic concept is preserved;

• a new kind - a qualitative change in the original properties of the system, the original concept without changing the functional principle;

• The new genus is the highest change in the functional properties of the system, which alters the functional principle;

• radical (basic);

• Improving;

• modification (private).

On the scale of distribution can be identified: local innovation, developing the available basic technology; industry innovations , which have become the basis for a new industry; global innovation , which are used across all industries.

Based on the nature of the needs, the innovations can be targeted to existing needs or can create new ones.

According to the degree of novelty, innovations can be based on new discoveries or be created on the basis of a new method applied

to open phenomena. By the type of novelty for the market of innovation are divided into the following types:

• New to the industry in the world;

• New for the industry in the country;

• New to the enterprise (group of enterprises).

For reasons of innovation, it is possible to divide into reactive, survival-providing firms, which are a reaction to innovations implemented by a competitor; strategic - innovations, the introduction of which is proactive in order to obtain competitive advantages in the future.

In the field of application, innovations are very peculiar: technical appear usually in the production of products with new or improved properties; Technological arise when applying improved, more advanced ways of manufacturing products; organizational-managerial are primarily connected with the processes of optimal organization of production, transport, sales and supply; information solve the tasks of organizing rational information flows in the sphere of scientific and technical and innovation activities, increasing the reliability and efficiency of information retrieval; social are aimed at improving working conditions, solving health, education, culture problems.

The place of innovation in the system (in the enterprise) can be identified:

• Innovations at the input enterprises (changes in the choice of raw materials, materials, machinery and equipment, information, etc.);

• Innovations on output enterprises (products, services, technologies, information, etc.);

• Innovation of the system structure of the enterprise (management, production, technological).

The Scientific Research Institute for System Research (RNIISI) proposed an extended classification of innovations, taking into account the areas of activity of the enterprise. According to this feature, innovations are subdivided into technological, production, economic, trade, social, in the field of management.

In the theory of innovation management, the general (traditional) classification of innovations and innovative products and the classification of innovations are distinguished, taking into account the development of technologies based on "subversive" innovation.

The basis of the general (traditional) classification of innovation and innovative products is the following features.

As a source of ideas for innovation can act:

• discovery, scientific idea, scientific theory, phenomenon;

• invention, a number of inventions, licenses;

• rationalization proposals;

• Other situations.

Kind of innovation :

• product, its design or device, system and mechanism;

• technology, method, method;

• material, substance;

• living organisms, plants;

• buildings, buildings, structures, offices, shops or plots, other architectural solutions

• an information product (project, research, development, program, etc.);

• Services;

• Other solutions.

The following types of innovations are distinguished in areas of application in the scientific and production process in the field of industry, transport, communications and agriculture:

• research that changes the process in the field of R & D;

• technical or product, which usually appears in the production of products with new or improved properties, lead to a change in the technology of business processes in the consumer;

• Technological, which arise when applying improved, more sophisticated ways of manufacturing products, lead to a change in the technology of business processes in the consumer;

• information and communication, which lead to a change in information processing technologies and communication technology in the consumer;

• marketing, which leads to changes in the study of markets and work on them, changes in brands of goods and organizations;

• Logistic, which lead to changes in the organization of flow, supply and marketing;

• organizational and managerial, which lead to changes in the organizational mechanism and management system, improve them;

• socio-economic, legal, which change the social, economic and legal conditions of the enterprise.

For application areas in the service industry :

• Education;

• food;

• Sports and youth;

• culture;

• Healthcare;

• Legal services and security;

• Tourism;

• Trade;

• Financial services, etc.

But novelty level innovative products and services are divided into those with the following characteristics:

• world novelty;

• domestic novelty;

• Industry novelty;

• New to the company;

• Expansion of the existing range of goods, assortment, portfolio of goods and services;

• Updated products and services;

• goods and services with changed positioning;

• with reduced costs (industrial innovation). Scale of innovation ;

• transnational;

• national economic and federal;

• Regional;

• Municipal;

• within the framework of associations and associations;

• within the organization;

• within the unit.

Latitude impact of innovation:

• global, world;

• national economic, national;

• Industry;

• local.

The pace of implementation of innovation;

• fast, growing;

• Slow, uniform,

• slow, fading.

Stages of the life cycle of innovation , from which the innovation process for this organization begins and which it ends:

• Research;

• development;

• Industrial production;

• Marketing;

• Logistics;

• diffusion;

• Routineization;

• Service support.

Succession highlight the following innovations:

• opening, which can be followed by a flow of new innovations on which the multiplier effect is based;

• closing - innovation, closing a number of industries;

• Substitution;

• canceling;

• retraining.

Consider the classification of innovations, taking into account the development of technologies based on "subversive" innovation.

According to the concept of K. Christensen, it is planned to develop innovative strategies and innovative business by periodically changing the "subversive" and supporting technological innovations and their applications - innovative products and services. Disruptive Innovations - Innovations in which old products and technologies are replaced by new and competitive ones. Examples of subversive innovations are the phone

(replaced the telegraph), steamships (replaced sailing ships), semiconductors (replaced electrovacuum devices), digital cameras (replaced film), e-mail ("undermined" traditional mail). "Subversive Innovations", strategies gradually supplant supporting innovation. Together with them, the entire innovation business is changing.

Thus, G. Mensh singled out basic, improving innovations (promote the emergence of new industries and new markets) and "pseudo-innovation" - imaginary innovations (improve the quality of the object or slightly change the elements of the technological process).

United States researcher K). V. Yakovets developed the views of G. Mensch and suggests the following types of innovations:

basic (sometimes also called radical) - innovations that are based on scientific discoveries or large inventions and are aimed at developing fundamentally new products and services, new technologies generations

improving (also called incremental) - innovations aimed at improving the parameters of products and technologies used, improving products and processes;

microinnovations }} improving individual production or consumer parameters of produced models of technology and applied technologies using small inventions, which contributes to more effective production of these models or increase the efficiency of their use;

pseudo-innovation (rationalizing innovation) - an activity that results in a partial improvement of characteristics (sometimes secondary), existing, including largely obsolete products, generations of technology and technology.

So, G. Mensch and K). V. Yakovets is classified on the basis of consideration of exclusively technological innovations, in terms of the degree of radical innovation and the level of its novelty, therefore both these approaches are limited. PN Zavlin and AV Vasiliev propose the classification of innovations presented in Table. 2.1.

For example, V. V. Gorshkov and E. A. Kretova use two characteristics as a basis for the classification scheme of innovations: structural characteristics and target changes (Table 2.2). From the point of view of structural characteristics, innovations are divided into three groups:

1) Innovations on the input in the enterprise;

2) Innovations on output from the enterprise;

3) Innovation of the structure of the enterprise as a system that includes individual elements and mutual links between them.

On the target change, innovations are divided into technological, production, economic, commercial, social and innovation innovations in the field of management.

.

Table 2.2

Classification of innovations by V. V. Gorshkov and E. A. Kretova

Classification

Innovation forks

Content of innovation

1. Structural characteristic of innovation

1.1. Innovations on input in the enterprise

1.1. Target qualitative or quantitative change in the selection and use of materials, raw materials, equipment, information, workers and other resources

1.2. Innovations on output from the enterprise

1.2. Targeted qualitative or quantitative changes

1.3. Innovations of the structure of the enterprise as a system, i.e. its individual elements

1.3. Targeted changes of production, service and auxiliary links to quality, quantity, organization and method of provision

2. Targeted changes

2.1. Technological

2.1. Creation and development of new products, technologies, materials, equipment modernization. reconstruction of industrial buildings and their equipping, the implementation of the event on environmental protection

2.2. Production

2.2. Expansion of production capacities, diversification of production activities, changes in the structure of production and the ratio of capacities of individual production units

2.3. Economic

2.3. Change in methods and methods of planning all types of production and economic activities, reducing production costs and improving the end results, increasing economic incentives and material incentives for workers, rationalizing the system of calculation of internal production costs

2.4. Trading

2.4. Use of pricing methods in relations with suppliers and customers, offering new products and services, providing or collecting financial resources in the form of loans, using new methods for distributing profits and other accumulated resources, etc.

2.5. Social

2.5. Improvement of the conditions and nature of labor, social security, provided services, psychological climate and the nature of the relationship at the enterprise or between its individual organizational units

End of the table. 2.2

Classification

Innovation forks

Content of innovation

2.6. Innovation in management

2.6. Improvement of organizational structure, style and methods of decision-making, use of new means of information processing and documentation, streamlining of clerical work, etc.

Source : Gorshkov VV, Kretova EA Innovative risks. St. Petersburg. : Publishing house SP6GEE, 1996.

According to E. A. Utkin, G. I. Morozova, N. I. Morozova, the classification features of innovations are the reason for the emergence of innovation, the subject and scope of innovation, the nature of the needs met (Table 2.3).

Table 2.3

Classification of innovations according to EA Utkin, GI Morozova,

H. I. Morozova

Classification

Kind of innovation

Content of innovation

1. Reason for occurrence

1.1. Reactive

1.1. Ensure the survival of a firm or bank; reaction to new transformations carried out by a competitor in order to be able to fight in the marketplace

1.2. Strategic

1.2. Their implementation is proactive in order to obtain decisive competitive advantages in the future

2. The subject and scope of the application

2.1. Foodstuffs

2.1. New Products and Services

2.2. Marketplace

2.2. The discovery of new areas of application of the product, as well as enabling the service to be implemented in new markets

2.3. Iiovatsii-processes

2.3. Technology, production organization and management processes

3. The nature of the needs met

3.1. Orientation to existing needs

3.1. Current needs today, which are not fully or partially satisfied

3.2. Orientation to the formation of new needs

3.2. The needs for the future, which can appear under the influence of factors that change the tastes and interests of people, their requests, etc.

Source : Utkin EA, Morozova GI Morozova N.I. Innovative management. M .: AKALIS, 2010.

With. D. Ilyenkov, as one of the criteria of his classification, denotes the depth of the introduced changes and distinguishes radical (basic), improving and modifying innovations, from the point of view of such criteria as technological parameters, novelty, place in the enterprise and scope of activity (Table 2.4).

Table 2.4

Classification of innovation according to SD Il'yenkovoy

Classification

Kind of innovation

1. Technological parameters

Productive, Processed

2. Novelty

New to the industry in the world, new to the industry in the country, new to the enterprise

3. Location in the enterprise

Innovations on the input & quot ;, innovations on the output & quot ;, system structure innovations

4. Depth of insertion changes

Radical (basic), improving, modifying

5. Sphere of activity

Technological, industrial, economic, trade, social, management

Source: Innovative management: a textbook/ed. SD Ilyenkov. M .: UNITY-DANA. 1997.

And. T. Balabanov as a system of classification characteristics distinguishes the following indicators (Table 2.5):

the target tag gives an answer to the question what is the goal of innovation: the solution of an immediate task (current) or a future task (strategic);

The external sign - indicates the form of implementation of the innovation;

structural feature - determines the group composition of innovation as a single sphere of the state's economic interests.

Table 2.5

Classification of innovation according to IT Balabanov

Classification

Kind of innovation

1. Target

Crisis innovations, development innovations

2. External characteristic

Innovations in the form of a product and in the form of an operation

3. Structural feature

Industrial-commercial, socio-economic, financial, managerial

Source: Balabanov I. T. Risk management. Moscow: Finance and Statistics. 1996.

L. I. Prigozhim offers a classification of innovations, presented in Table. 2.6.

Considering different approaches to the classification of innovations, it is necessary to take into account that the generalization and classification of classification characteristics and the creation on the basis of this scientifically grounded classification of innovations has a significant practical significance, since it has the potential to give a detailed idea of ​​the characteristics of a progressive innovation. This, in turn, is necessary for the implementation of adequate support from the state for the introduction of innovations at the country's enterprises.

Table 2.6

Classification of innovations according to AI Prigozhish

Classification

Kind of innovation

1. By prevalence

Single and diffuse

2. By place in the production cycle

Raw materials, providing, food

3. By continuity

Replace, cancel, return, open, retrovovedeniya

4. In terms of coverage of the expected market share

Local, system, strategic

5. On innovative potential and degree of novelty

Radical, combinatorial, improving

Source: Innovative management/ed. S. Ilyenkov.

The object in the innovation market can be the results of any stage of R & D implementation: fundamental research, applied research, development, development, and therefore it is proposed to consider types of innovation as market objects (Table 2.7).

Table 2.7

Innovations as objects of the market

Level

Innovation

Characteristic

Object

innovation market

I

The result of fundamental research; new general scientific idea

Contract R & D, publications

II

The result of applied research; a new scientific and applied idea, know-how

Patents for invention, know-how

III

The result of experimental design work; technology of creating a new product, organizational and technological preparation of production

Patents for the industrial design

IV

The result of the development of production; innovation modification

Licenses

V

Development of innovative services, innovative brands

Trademarks, trademarks

Source: Balabanov I. T. Risk management.

The emergence and development of innovation at all levels is interrelated. Innovations I and II levels have less willingness to commercialize, although they can also be exchanged. But they determine the direction and nature of relations in the innovation markets of higher levels. It should be noted that the nature of the relationship between participants in the innovation market can often not be defined as an exchange in the understanding of the commodity-money transaction characteristic of most food markets. In the innovative market, there is an exchange of "intangible, intangible benefits, specialized skills and knowledge, and processes." As S. Vargo and R. Lash note, "this exchange of specializations entails the emergence of two points of view on what exactly is exchanged. The first focuses on the product - the result of a certain activity; the second - on the performance of this activity .

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