What companies want to know about their customers - Marketing

What companies want to know about their customers

Coca-Cola companies, for example, know that its typical American consumer usually puts 3.2 cubes of ice in his tall glass, reviews 69 of her commercials annually and prefers to receive from a vending machine a jar of drink , cooled to + 1.5 ° C. The company's managers are certainly satisfied that every day 1 million Americans consume Coca-Cola for breakfast.

Marketers have similar information about consumer behavior in other countries. They are well aware that the Swiss are passionate chocolate lovers, the Greeks are leaders in the consumption of cheese, the Irish are tea.

The individual at every moment experiences different needs. But most of them are not strong enough to motivate a person to act at this moment. The need turns into a motive only when a sufficient level of intensity is reached. Motive is a need, the urgency of which is sufficient to direct an individual to its satisfaction. To explore the motives of consumer behavior, resort to motivational analysis (marketing often uses the theory of motivation 3. Freud and A. Maslow).

Based on the psychoanalytic model of Sigmund Freud, the process of consumer acceptance of the purchase decision is analyzed. It is believed that the consumer's important consumer motives are of a subconscious nature and a person, forming an opinion on some product, can not clearly substantiate the choice.

The theory of motivation of Abraham Maslow explains why the motives of people's behavior at a particular moment are certain needs. Maslow has developed a hierarchical system of needs, which (in descending order of their role) includes: physiological needs (nutrition, clothing, housing), the need for self-preservation (security, safety), social needs (belonging to a particular social group), the need for love, respect (self-respect, gaining a certain status at work, recognition of merit), self-assertion (self-development and self-realization, the opportunity to fully reveal their abilities). Man seeks first of all to satisfy the most important for the needs of the people. When he succeeds, it ceases to be a motivator, and the individual will try to satisfy the next most important need. This knowledge helps to correctly assess the possible behavior of different categories of consumers, as well as motivate employees, including marketing specialists.

Perception is the process by which a person selects, organizes and interprets the information necessary to construct a meaningful picture of the real world. Studying the behavior of consumers and choosing the method of promotion, it is necessary to take into account that people perceive the information provided selectively, interpret it differently and everyone assimilate it in accordance with their own attitudes and beliefs.

In the process of active behavior, the individual learns, assimilating his previous experience. Assimilation is that, based on the acquired experience, the behavior of a person changes. Stimulating demand, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors of assimilation - internal motivations of buyers, tips of other buyers, people's reaction to the opportunity to buy goods, consolidating the experience of buying a particular product.

The consumer behavior influences the consumer behavior, i.e. their ideas about the product. Beliefs can be based on real knowledge, opinion, faith. They are capable of carrying an emotional charge, but they may not contain it. Marketers should consider consumer perceptions about a particular product. Undoubtedly, negative beliefs will prevent the commission of a purchase.

A person has a certain attitude towards food, clothing, politics, music, religion, etc. Relationships are strong positive or unfavorable assessments, feelings and inclinations towards certain subjects and ideas that strongly influence consumer behavior. Relationships are difficult to change, but they must be taken into account, forming a marketing policy, adapting it to certain relations as much as possible.

All the factors discussed above are the subject of special marketing research.

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