1. 0 Introduction
Several research have been done on international students travel habits, behaviors, motivations and expenses. In 2008 the Higher Education Ministry Marketing and International Education Division director Dr Mohamed Nasser Mohamed Noor together with the immigration department does an observation on amounts of international students that arrived to Malaysia and found that the quantities has increased 30% from the previous season which is 65, 000 in comparison to 48, 000 in time 2006. The full total number is the sum of international students that signed up for both of the general public and the private international institution of higher education. Matching to Ahmad Nazri (2005) "by the year 2010 the federal government expected and targeted 100, 000 international students further their studies in Malaysia" and since that time, numerous of research either on the travel habits, behaviours, motivations or expenses of the international students in Malaysia have been done by general public and private university students.
Dato' Sri Ng Yen Yen, (2009) concludes that "Malaysia's tourism industry is the next (2nd) highest contributor to the country" and it contributed significantly to the Malaysian overall economy. By importing and getting more international students they'll play the role as a local tourist in addition to a host to visiting friends and family members (VFR) who came up down visiting Malaysia. Studies have proven that the international students and their VFR spends a great deal in domestically which will give a direct effect towards the country overall economy. For 2005, the Malaysian administration believed that the international students have contributed RM1. 5 billion to the Malaysia overall economy. Tourism has a variety economy influences. Either immediate or indirect efforts. The most direct contribution for the economy is using local travelling like bus, train or domestic flight and lodging to local accommodations. Besides that, tourist expenditure for the visitors attractions such as leisure park, museum, shopping intricate and restaurants also been categorized as a primary contribution. All in all, Malaysia is still missing of observation upon this issues because other than promoting and increase the information on Malaysia being the international high education, the federal government didn't spend money on anything to keep up and sustain the fact that you will see more than 100, 000 international students that going to enrolled in local and international organizations from public and private universities to general public and private schools.
Table 1 as mentioned above shows the most notable 10 countries of international students in Malaysia this year 2010. A full draft of the most notable 10 countries of international students in Malaysia will be attach as Appendix A for future reference point. From the desk, it implies that, majority of the international students are from china. International students have their own determination or intent on why they analyze overseas on certain country. These motivations can be clarified as multi aspect where it may attract by various factors. One of the various factors may engaged push and move motives in taking them or taking them out of the safe place. It may well not be the training factors that draw in the international students to study in foreign countries it maybe the destination itself. The elegance of a destination according to Metin Kozak on his "comparative research of vacationer motivations by nationality and places" article is an important component that pulls the holiday in their decision making towards destination.
On the global scale as per mention by Weaver and Oppermann, local travelers is one of the primary contributor to the country where there spend a great deal compared to the international travelers. International students who continues to be in a specific country for more than a year and also have still have their learner permit is consider as home tourist. Therefore, whenever they are out getaway or spending in the united states (40kilometers away from their resident) itself, there are call domestic tourist. There are numerous of factors in why the international students travel domestically throughout their study in a particular country. To include up, the Malaysian federal has come out with holiday's breaks or trip seasons throughout the year not only for school's but also for working labors. This getaway breaks and holiday season more or less a primary and indirect motivation to all residents of Malaysia to venture out and also have their vacation and spend. Desk 2 as explained below is the holiday breaks and holiday season in Malaysia throughout the year.
1. 1 Problem Statement
Based on the Ninth Malaysian Plan that Malaysia is becoming the hub of education due the unique education system, Malaysia has a variety of skills and courses that has been provided in various institutions from open public and private universities to public and private schools. Currently increasingly more international students all over the world interested in studying in Malaysia. The primary attractions that appeals to the international students to study away from their home may be due to affordable living cost and tuition fees. Other than that the well planned infrastructure and culture, terms and heritage. There is a whole lot to inquiry in the problem on why or what influenced them to come and examine in Malaysia.
Majority of the international students that enrolled in the Malaysian organizations are from China and Indonesia and accompanied by the center East and the African countries. Besides that, Malaysia also received great feedbacks from Japan, India, the United States and the uk. Other than the united states that stated, Malaysian government decided to promote and expand Malaysian international High Education at more than 70 places worldwide. The impact that Malaysia will get predicated on the hub higher education is massive development on tourism current economic climate. A lot more international students that emerged for education are attempt to stay longer and simultaneously making them a home tourist which have more spending ability than the neighborhood residents that are also known as domestic tourist. For that reason, a studies should be compile on the international students expenses, travel conducts, travel habits and motivations during their research period in Malaysia so the federal understand the styles, need and demand of the international students for future purposes.
1. 2 Study objectives
To check out why the international students select Malaysia on pursuing their studies from their house country
To identify the motivations that persuades the international students to visit and spend in Malaysia during their study period.
To review how usually the international students travel (domestically) during their study period in Malaysia
To do a research in what exactly are the key activities and destinations were went to by the international students during their travel in Malaysia.
To check out how much do the international students spends during their travel in Malaysia (domestically)
To identify on what have the Malaysian federal did to keep or even to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country.
1. 3 Research study question
Why the international students decided Malaysia on seeking their studies from their home country?
What are the motivations that persuade the international students to travel and spend in Malaysia throughout their study period?
How usually the international students travel (domestically) throughout their research period in Malaysia?
What are the primary activities and destinations were stopped at by the international students throughout their travel in Malaysia?
How much the international students spend throughout their travel in Malaysia (domestically)?
What performed the Malaysian government did to keep up or even to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country?
Scope of study
This study is only going to focus on the travel patterns, behavior, determination and expenditure of international students in both of local and international corporations from open public and private colleges to general population and private universities in Selangor. The assortment of data will be perform at four (4) popular local and international establishments in Selangor, KDU College or university College or university (Damansara), Segi University College (Damansara), School Malaya (UM) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia. The four (4) stated institutions were chosen from a list of general population and private local and international establishments in Selangor provided by the Ministry of ADVANCED SCHOOLING (www. jpt. mohe. gov. my). The four (4) shown institutions were picked out for this review is as a result of location convenience and these four (4) corporations were believe as they are well establish establishment in Selangor and were consider to raise the numbers of international students in Malaysia in the future.
1. 5 Important of study
Malaysia is now the hub of education as the Ministry of Education is aiming for the best and superiority education to attract the international students from across the world to come and review in Malaysia. The intent of this review is to look at the contribution of international students towards Malaysia economy. By studying on the international students going patterns, conducts, motivations and expenditure is important for the federal government and country where in fact the government will know where in fact the direct and indirect economical contributions came from and who or what are the major contributors to the country. By investigating the contributions and the contributor, not only the government but also the industry and the academics or education sector will endeavors to comprehend the financial impact of the united states that they had been earned. Education sector for some country play a very important role on maintaining on their country current economic climate. Generally education activities will lead to travel and leisure activities and indirectly benefits the country market. Nonetheless, by studying the motivations and the characteristic of the international students we could examine what are the "tips" of the sights that seduced them therefore the government or the united states could upgrade and keep maintaining the destinations for future purposes. That is very important for Malaysian Tourism board to comprehend the international students markets towards Malaysia. With this study it will bring equal advantages to the Malaysia education and Malaysia tourism sector. This review will also help the federal government keep track on the amounts of the international students that came in achieving the mark 100, 000 international students by the entire year 2010.
2. 0 Introduction
Literature review is needed to make this analysis relevant and appropriate. Most of the literature review is from prior research and studies on international students travel patterns, behaviors, expenditure and motivations. In clarifying the study objectives and research question that was mention in section one, literature review is the utmost important component in this research. Various different sources were found in finding relevant information upon this study. These includes catalogue catalogue (Elib. kdu. edu. my, webpac. kdu. edu. my and elsivier-ebooks. com), online data centered (bibliography, abstracts and dissertation, newspaper and reports) and the majority of related journal articles were reviewed from Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Journal of Travel and leisure Studies, Journal of Travel Research, Journal of Holiday Marketing and other relevant journal articles that are related to the studies. After critiquing almost all of the journal articles, it appears that literature review upon this study is limited here in Malaysia which means this study had not been taken into a serious discussion.
Theoretical and conceptual framework is been examined in this review in order to distinguish the primary theory or factors and also to identify limitation of the study. As per shown are the studies from all the literature and it has been summarized appropriately. The books that related to international students travel patterns, behaviors, expenses and motivations were placed into 1) Press and Move factors : Desire on study overseas, 2) Drive and Pull factors : Determination on traveling domestically, 3) Pull factors : determination in spending 4) Most of the ideas were found help us to comprehend the study question which may have been mentioned in chapter one according to below.
What motivates international students choose Malaysia on chasing their studies.
What will be the motivations that persuade the international students to travel and spend in Malaysia throughout their analysis period?
How often the international students travel (domestically) throughout their review period in Malaysia?
What are the key activities and destinations were visited by the international students during their travel in Malaysia?
How much the international students spend throughout their travel in Malaysia (domestically)?
What have the Malaysian federal did to keep or to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country?
2. 1 Press and Move factors : Determination on study abroad
A volume of theory that been studied on the determination on students study abroad. Push and move factors are the primary factors in driving a car students to review abroad. Thrust factors is a intangible factor where it's pressing the students to venture out from your home and study in another country and moving away from their comfort zone because of the socioeconomic, economic, politics and other circumstances that involved with their house country while for move factors is a tangible factor where a destination is pulling the students to review as of this particular country maybe because the secure economy, politics, infrastructure and other advantages of the sponsor country. In simple words, the relation of move and thrust factors are connect to the destination selection of the international students with regards to the destination attractiveness, affect and satisfaction of the destination.
The international students market in coming to a specific country will generate direct or indirect economy impact as it an evergrowing global market tendency nowadays. A study made by Jianvittayakit on "the travel drive as the factor of international students selected foreign school" in chasing their study declaring that educational factor in particular country is the key motivation to the international students to come quickly to that destination rather than the destination appeal. Together with the 88. 63 percent response rate on the study survey, it demonstrates the travel and academic push motivation are important for the learner cultural life where these students have desire to travel to other country and experience a fresh life in learning a new culture, traditions and words and basically will gain more life and work experience. The results of the analysis also implies that the move factors of the destinations and as pursuing are the key motivations on why students are motivate to go to a particular areas. The first one is the financial issues is where the economy of the country is stabilize and accompanied by tourist appeal and basic safety security of the destination. The studies show that both move and press factors does have its own factors in affect and stimulate the students to study abroad. Stand 3 as explained here are the framework on the analysis of press and take factors.
Travel and educational Pull and Drive factor motivation
Source : Jianvittayakit, L (2010) An investigation of travel desire as a factor in international students choice of a foreign college or university : A Thailand case study
In order to comprehend tourist choice of leisure destination, an analysis on the inspiration factor on what take the visitor to the destination is needed. From the analysis of Zhang, J. & Marcussen C. (2007) on "Tourist desire, market segmentation and marketing strategies" explained that the move factors of a particular destination is mainly about the social, traditions and the natural visitors attractions of the destinations. The holiday characteristics also play the role in choosing a destination. Example "city breaker" is a term for travelers that like to travel in the location compared to "nature beach" is a term for vacationers that like to travel where beach are involve. It will involve the actions and the travel and spending patterns due to significant different between your two (2) feature. In the analysis also point out that the destination developer need to comprehend the needs, desires and wants. The yank and thrust factors that been outlined in the analysis in showing what makes the tourist find the destination is basically as same as the stand that shown above.
A study by Mazzarol, T. & Soutar, G. (2007) on the "Push-Pull factors influencing international student's selection of education vacation spot" explained the results on why the international students decided to go with particular vacation spot on going after their study. The primary push factors stated that, scheduled to insufficient higher educational program in their home countries made the international students review abroad. Other than that technology development and words also are likely involved in thrust factors. For the take factors, Mazzarol, T. & Soutar, G. (2007) stated that there are six (6) main factors that basically move the international students. Information on the variety country is needed where in fact the international students may have significantly more knowledge and recognition on the variety country. When the host country recently been understand with good reputation, it easily can be recommend by the family, peers and educators. The price issues are also one of the main pull factors. The price issues include the living expenses, the travel cost, tuition fees and more. A cost issue is important to the international students because there have restriction on money. The next factor is the surroundings and the geography factors. Environment and geography factors cover the local climate and safety and security of the destination. No one wishes to visit a vacation spot where there are natural disasters. Basically the push and pull factors can be define identical to the desk 3 shown above.
To summarize the press and draw factors on students research abroad, it appears like the press factor may be the primary reason or inspiration for students to review in another country. The analyze implies that, the limitation of the home country such as higher education programs and cost-effective and political sensible makes them travel and grow their horizon to another country where it is more opportunity for them.
2. 2 Press and Pull factors : Desire on travelling domestically
People happen to be full fill up their needs, want and demand such food, local climate, family, health, education while others and traveling may be domestically or internationally. Folks have various and different reason on why they travel local or international.
A review by Kozak, M (2000) on "Comparative research of vacationer motivations by nationality and locations" is principally about exploring the differences between your motivations of these who are from different countries travelling to the same destinations and second, between your motivations of these who are from the same countries and going to two different destinations
2. 3 Yank factors : Inspiration on spending
3. 0 Introduction
This chapter will have a clearer take on the travel habits, actions, motivations and expenditures by the international students in Malaysia. This section will cover the study design, the study instruments, the populace and sample and data collection. Enough time horizon which will be use within this review is cross - sectional design where this study will take place only in calendar year 2011. Cross - sectional design is different from longitudinal design where cross - sectional design only gathers data at a unitary time compared to longitudinal design where the amount of collecting the data is a far more little much longer.
3. 1 Research Design
In taking into consideration the research objectives and question, the quantitative methods will be using in this research in understanding the travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures by the international students in Malaysia. This analysis is using review research solution to have more understanding about the respondents. On the designing the analysis research, these next steps were involve. First is gathering all the books that is tightly related to and relevant to the analysis to get understanding about the subjects and to instruct self. Next step is identify the research objectives together with developing the study question on the subject. After figuring out both of the research targets and question, the right research methods were selected to carry the study. Research and assess on the study equipment will be develop as the web questionnaire survey. Shifting is the step where selecting the populace and test of colleges and respondents who will involve in this research. When the populace and sample alongside the questionnaire has been approved, distributing of the web questionnaire survey to the sample stage will be managing. The results the online questionnaire study will be gather and analyze for its stability and usability. And the finish stage of the study design is examining the data that contain been collect and to interpret the result.
3. 2 Research Instruments
Online questionnaire review and normal study papers will be used in this analysis since it is appropriate likened than interviews period. Using online questionnaire survey helps you to save time and cost because of this survey will take put in place four (4) local and international establishments in Selangor, KDU University or college College (Damansara), Segi College or university College (Damansara), School Malaya (UM) and College or university Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIA) in short period of time. And the advantage of online questionnaire survey is, the respondents which will be the international students will have own time on responding to the study.
A organised online questionnaire survey will be given to respective lecturers for all four (4) establishments. The lecturers will be ask to give out the online questionnaire to the international students. The questionnaire originated to compile data on international students travel patterns, behaviours, motivations and expenses in Malaysia. The web questionnaire survey is at English where British is the dialect that be easily understand by the international students in Malaysia. The web questionnaire survey get started with a briefly intro on the goal of this study informing the respondents that the review information is will be only use by this research and everything information that been share will be completely confidential.
The online questionnaire study is a detailed ended question and purposely made in three parts to avoid confusion during the research. Demographics quality question such as gender, era, country of origins, program learning in Malaysia is partly one of the online questionnaire survey and on the second part of the online questionnaire survey is measuring the on why the international students decided Malaysia in chasing their studies, what motivates the international students to travel, how much the international students spend during their travel. Both were in close ended questionnaire. The very last area of the questionnaire is scaling question. Five point level range from 1 - highly disagree to 5 - strongly agree which requires respondents to circle one (1) point for each question
3. 3 Populace and Sample
This analysis will be perform at four (4) popular local and international corporations in Selangor, KDU School College (Damansara), Segi University or college College (Damansara), College or university Malaya (UM) and School Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIA) which will involve their international students. As per mention in section one (1), the four (4) outlined intuitions were picked out from a list of public and private local and international companies in Selangor provided by the Ministry of ADVANCED SCHOOLING (www. jpt. mohe. gov. my). The four (4) outlined institutions were picked out for this study is because of the location convenience and these four (4) institutions were believe as they are well establish institution in Selangor and were imagine to raise the numbers of international students in Malaysia in the foreseeable future.
Majority of the international students from each organization that mentioned above will be involve for this study. And from the list, 100 international students from each organization will be selected by using the random sampling method. Random sampling method were chosen because to avoid bias during the whole review. The 100 international students will be choose via the computer using the SPSS version 17 right out of the sample frame which will be provide by the corporations. By carrying out this, each scholar will have the same potential for being selected meaning you will see no biased. The sample frame includes all the international students that are learning in the institution. A duplicate of the online questionnaire survey will be attach as Appendix B for future research.
3. 4 Data Collection
The data collection for all (4) institutions will take place in early on March 2011 where new semester will take place. In order to make the data assortment of this study flawless, a stop by at the supervision office of most four (4) corporations will be made to be able to secure authorization in doing the web survey. An official letter also will get to make it established. A duplicate of the official letter of carrying out the online study will add as Appendix C for future reference point. According to all four (4) administration officer, the simplest way to reach for the international students in doing the review is throughout their computer classes. The website or the Link of the online questionnaire study will be given to the particular lecturer and the website or the Link will be given to the respondents by the end of their course.
3. 5 Data Analysis
In analyzing the info that will be collect, frequency evaluation will be used in summarizing the data. Frequency research is one of the descriptive statistic components where it only can be computed by the computer. Analyzing utilizing the SPSS version 17, the overview of the info will be shown in histogram forms. Other than the frequency evaluation methods, the chi - rectangular test also will be use to check the relationship between the demographics and the travel habits, behaviors, motivations and expenditures of the international students. Correlation and regression will be use within this data examination. Both methods will be use in order to investigate two (2) variables whether they associated with the other person or elsewhere.
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