Splined joints (fig. 4.7), in comparison with keyed ones, provide a higher accuracy of centering of parts on the shaft, and also have a much higher load capacity.
Connections are performed by moving and stationary (along the axis of the shaft).
Three types of spline joints are distinguished by the shape of the cross-section:
• Direct-arm (GOST 1139-91);
• involute (GOST 6033-80);
• triangular (manufactured according to industry standards).
Straight-arm splines (Figure 4.8) are manufactured in three series: light, medium and heavy. The parameters of the direct-slot splines are given in Table. A.149.
To connect the spline sleeve and the shaft of the lateral joints, one of three possible ways of centering them should be selected:
• For the outer diameter O (Figure 4.8, a),
• with respect to the inner diameter δ (Figure 4.8, b)
• on the sides of the slots b (Figure 4.8, c).
Centering on one of the diameters (O or g) is used in those cases when an increased accuracy of coincidence of the geometric axes of the mating parts is required.
O-centering is most often used when the hub's hardness (less than IV 350) allows holes to be machined with a broach, with the shaft machined with circular grinding.
When the hub material is harder than the HB 350, centering is used for the inner diameter d. In this case, the centering surfaces of the hub and shaft are ground, making the connection cost more expensive. Centering on c1 is usually used in mobile connections with high hub or long shafts.
Centering on the sides of the splines is effective when the precision of the geometric axes coincides is not significant, but it is required to ensure the strength of the connection during operation (for example, cardan shafts in cars) or, when the working conditions require minimum gaps in L (for example, under the action of an alternating moment). This method does not provide high accuracy of centering and is rarely used.
The structure of the symbol for the splined straight-line connection should look like this:
where 1 is the designation of the centering surface; 2 - number of connection splines; 3, 6, 9 - nominal dimensions of d, 0 and b; 4, 7, 10, 5, 8, 11 - designation of the tolerance fields for holes and shafts in diameters d, d, and along the sides of the slots b.
In the designation, tolerances of non-centering diameters are not allowed. Tolerances and landings of the direct-slot splines are given in Table. 11.150.
An example of the symbol for a joint, bushing and shaft:
• for splined joints with a number of splines 2 = 8, inner diameter c1 = 42 mm, outer diameter O = 46 mm, slot width b = 8 mm, centered to <3,
• for the hole of the same connection:
• for the shaft of the same connection:
Involute splined joints
The splined connection with the involute splines (Fig. 4.9) differs from the lateral by the more advanced manufacturing technique (similar to the cutting of gears), the increased strength of the splines and shafts themselves and the accuracy of the centering. The parameters of the involute spline joints are given in Table. P. 151.
For slotted bushings and an involute spline shaft, one of four possible ways of centering must be selected:
on the sides of the slots.? (Figure 4.9, i); the outer diameter d (Figure 4.9, b); internal diameter (I (Figure 4.9, c);
relative to the auxiliary cylindrical surface (Figure 4.9, d).
The first two methods are the most common, and the centering with respect to q is the most economical, and the most accurate for O.
The dimensions of the spline joints with the involute profile of the splines are standardized by GOST 6033-80.
Landings of spline involute compounds and possible area of their application are given in Table. A.152.
The structure of the symbol for the spline involute connection should have the following form:
where 1 - the designation of centering on the inner diameter; 2 - nominal diameter of connection D 3, 4, 6, 7 - designation of tolerance fields for centering diameters of holes and shafts (tolerances for non-centering diameters in designation do not specify); 5 - module, mm; 8 - number of the standard.
a) connection designation O = 40 mm, t = 2 mm centered on the sides of the splines, landing
designation of the bushing of the same joint: 40 * 2 * 9 # GOST 6033-80; designation of the shaft of the same joint: 40 * 2 * 9g GOST 6033-80; b) the designation of the connection d = 40 mm, t = 2 mm with centering on the outside diameter, landing
designation of the bushing of the same joint: 40 * # 7 * 2 GOST 6033-80; designation of the shaft of the same joint: 40 * # 6 * 2 GOST 6033-80; c) Connection designation # = 40 mm, t = 2 mm centered on the inner diameter, fitment
designation of the bushing of the same joint:/40 * 2 * # 7 GOST 6033-80; designation of the shaft of the same joint:/40 * 2 * ^ 6 GOST 6033-80.
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