DISEASES OF HORSES DOG
Hoof diseases in horses have a number of specific characteristics that put them on a special place among diseases of other parts of the distal limb. These features are as follows:
1. Ungulates are difficult to recognize mainly because of the complex structure and interconnection of tissues concealed under a fairly thick horn capsule. Therefore, diseases such as the horny column, the beginning of ossification of the cartilage cartilage, aseptic inflammation of the shuttle block, accompanied by a gradual, relatively slow development of the painful process and unclear symptoms, present difficulties for the diagnosis. Therefore, the diagnosis of orthopedic pathology requires not only a thorough examination of the hoof, but also the patient himself, by all methods available to the doctor.
2. Expressed propensity to develop necrotic and phlegmonous processes. Necrotic processes are often observed in weakly vascularized tissues (flexor tendon, cartilage cartilage), phlegmonous processes in areas with a highly developed subcutaneous layer (corolla, crumb region).
3. There is a high probability of complication with anaerobic infection. The hoof is in direct contact with the ground surface, therefore, with stabbed, ripped-bruised wounds, cracks of the hoof horn, conditions are created for forging pathogens of anaerobic infections, including tetanus.
4. Diseases of the hoofs are accompanied by severe soreness as a result of infringement between the hard horny capsule and the ungulate bone of inflamed tissues and nerve endings.
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5. The possibility of developing sepsis due to the spread of infectious agents through a highly developed network of capillaries and their penetration into the common bloodstream is not ruled out.
6. The course and outcome of hoof diseases are associated with the keratogenic function of the producing epidermal layer.
The characteristics of hoof disease and the difficulty of recognizing them explain the importance of a thorough and thorough examination of the horse in case of suspicion of hoof disease.
METHODOLOGY OF HORSE RESEARCH AT SUSPICIOUS OBESITY
A study of the horse with suspicion of hoof disease is carried out in the following order.
Anamnesis. The anamnestic data should be treated critically, since personnel caring for a horse may incorrectly assess the cause and nature of the disease.
When collecting an anamnesis, the question should be formulated as follows: when and as limped limp.
Anamnestic data, verified and confirmed by a subsequent study of a sick horse, helps to establish the etiology and localization of a painful process. For example, the information that the horse limped suddenly, sharply and strongly during work, give grounds to assume fracture of the hoof or shuttle bone, the presence of a deeply penetrating wound, a rupture of the tendon. The appearance of lameness soon after shoeing causes suspicion of forging. Intermittent claudication is a symptom of aseptic inflammation of the shuttle block. Gradually developing long-term lameness allows to assume the presence of chronic processes in the hoof area (osteophytes, horny column, ossification of the cartilage cartilage, etc.).
Questions about the nature and place of work of the horse (wooded, swampy terrain), about the quality of the road should also not be ignored when collecting an anamnesis.
A general study of the horse. When suspicion of hoof disease is important, it is important to establish the nature of the painful process, the prognosis, the determination of the appropriateness and the possibility of using certain therapeutic agents.
For example, a sharp increase in body temperature, increased pulse and respiration testify to the localization of the painful process in deeply located tissues, the presence of infection, the development of sepsis (traumatic purulent bursitis, necrosis of the tendon of the deep flexor of the finger, phlegmon of the corolla, purulent inflammation of the hoof joint). Surface wounds in the corolla are often accompanied by an increase in the overall temperature; in this case, the doctor must draw appropriate conclusions.
Impaired cardiac activity is a contraindication
niem for the use of certain medicines. The weakening of the general tone of the body adversely affects the course of painful processes in the hoof and serves as the basis for the use of tonic agents (camphor serum according to Kadykov, alcohol, calcium chloride, autohemotherapy, protein therapy, etc.).
Study of the local temperature of the hoof. It is determined by touching individual parts of the hoof with the palm or the back of the hand. First, examine the hooked part of the hoof, then the side walls and finally the heel area and corolla; for comparison, the same areas are felt on the adjacent hoof. It should be noted that the heel walls, covered with a thin layer of horns, are usually warmer than the hinged. Increase in local temperature is typical for acute inflammatory processes of the tissues enclosed in the horn capsule (rheumatic hoof inflammation, purulent pododermatitis in the forgings, punctured wounds of the sole, scurvy, etc.). With necrosis of the skin base, if this process captures a significant area, the local temperature of the hoof may decrease.
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Examination of the limbs at rest. At the same time pay attention to the nature of supporting the limbs on the soil. A horse can hold a sick limb in weight and do not lean on it at all, it can rest on a hook or heel or touch the ground with the entire plantar surface of the hoof. For example, in acute diseases localized in the rear sections of the hoof, the horse tries to release them and leans against the hook, bending the limb in the pivot joint. It should be taken into account that the same type of support is also observed with certain diseases in the area of the joint; therefore in such cases it is necessary to carry out differential diagnostics, having carried out additional researches. When the front and side sections of the hoof are painful, the horse rests on the heels, exposing the limb forward; this is typical for rheumatic hoof inflammation. At namnkah the horse in a resting state quite often leans completely on the ground hoof.
Examination of pulsation of arteries. On the chest extremity, the pulsation intensity of the superficial palmar articular artery (arteriae metacarpeae palmaris superficialis) is examined along the medial edge of the deep flexor tendon or the finger artery (arteriae digitales lateralis et medialis), if there are no sclerotic changes in this area. On the pelvic limb, the dorsal metacarpal laryngeal arteria (arteria metatarsea dorsalis lateralis) is examined on the lower border of the upper quarter of the metatarsal, in the depression between the metatarsal and lateral slate, or the finger arteries.
The amplified (tense) pulsation of the artery is one finite -
te compared with the other indicates the localization of the disease in the corresponding half of the hoof; most hoof diseases are characterized by increased pulsation of both arteries.
It should be remembered that a general study of the horse (body temperature, pulse and respiration rate), local hoof temperature and finger pulsation should be carried out before the horse is harnessed.
Study the horse while driving. The study helps determine the character of lameness. To do this, the horse is walking, trotting, laying back, forcing to move in a circle, along a soft and firm ground. In case of hoof disease, the lameness of the resting limb may be, in this case the time of resting the diseased limb to the ground is shortened compared to a healthy limb. The horse makes indecisive steps, tries as soon as possible to separate the sick limb from the ground and transfer the weight of his body to a healthy one. Lamsters of this type are also observed in diseases of the static apparatus of the overlying limb links (sprains of ligaments and tendons, arthritis, periostitis, cracks and fractures of bones, etc.); therefore it is necessary to confirm or exclude diseases of the hoof area by special additional studies.
Exterior examination of the hoof. It must be preceded by a preliminary hoof trimming, since it is not advisable to investigate a running dirty hoof. First, it is necessary to mechanically clean the hoof wall and its plantar surface, especially the grooves of the arrow grooves, where various foreign bodies usually fall. In unkempt horses, it is necessary to remove a layer of dead horn, since with further examination of the hoof with test pliers, a dead horn makes it difficult to recognize a painful reaction.
A well-trained horse, after assessing the quality of the shoe, is better to unhook in most cases, to keep the old horseshoe. On the removed horseshoe, check the uniformity of the erasure of its lower surface, the presence or absence of polished areas on the upper surface of the ends of the branches (disturbance of the biomechanics of the hoof when ossification of the crumb cartilage, squeezing of the hoof, etc.). On the surface of the extracted horseshoe nails are sometimes found traces of blood and pus; from the released nail channels in the horny wall can also be pus (suspicion of forging).
With external examination, attention should be paid to the shape of the hoof and the quality of the hoof horn; if deviations from the norm are found (oblique, compressed, crooked hoof, fragility, flabbiness of the horn, etc.), it is necessary to establish the cause (incorrect limb setting, improper clearance, insufficient
humidity in the room, where animals are kept, etc.). It is impossible to exclude the possibility that the change in the shape of the hoof is associated with pathological processes in the underlying tissues (inflammation of the basis of the skin, etc.).
When examining the area of the corolla, it is possible to detect swelling of varying size and consistency. Slightly fluctuating painful swelling, poured over the entire circumference of the corolla, causes suspicion of inflammation of the hoof joint, more or less limited - to the phlegmon of the corolla. Deepening in the field of the corolla - corolla twig - indicates the displacement of the hoof bone (rheumatic hoof inflammation).
In the area of the corolla there may be wounds and ulcers of different depths and in different stages of the inflammatory process, sometimes accompanied by detachment of the horn. The most carefully examined area of the corolla in horses with abundant dense hair cover.
When examining the hoof wall, it is necessary to pay attention to its slope, the evenness of the surface (in case of chronic inflammation of the base of the skin of the rim and the corolla the surface will be rough), on the character of ringing (physiological or pathological) in rheumatic hoof inflammation, rotting of the arrow, (cracks, clefts, breakage of the horn, etc.).
Particularly, it is necessary to inspect the plantar part, mainly the area of the arrow and the lateral arrow grooves. Here it is necessary to exclude or establish the presence of foreign bodies (nails, glass, fragments of iron, bones, sharp chips, knots of a tree, etc.). Sometimes foreign bodies fall out or they are extracted before the receipt of the cervical for treatment. However, traces on the site of their penetration are often found when clearing, especially the unpigmented horn, in the form of a dark spot or spot.
Inspecting the shape of the sole (flat, convex, compressed hoof, etc.) and establishing the connection of the form with the disease of deeper tissues becomes extremely important. Inspection of the white line can help diagnose chronic forms of rheumatic hoof inflammation (enlargement of the white line), horny column (semilunar extension of the white line), a straggly and empty wall (destruction of the white line).
When clearing the soles of the hooves, you can find spots of red, blue or yellow, especially in the area of its branches, which are the result of bruises or moles.
Palpation of crinkled cartilages. Palpation is performed to determine their elasticity, thickness and mobility (the possibility of ossification). To do this, the horse's limb is lifted
and lay two or three fingers (index, middle and nameless) of both hands under the inner surfaces of the upper edges of the cartilage and press downward and laterally into the region of the cartilage cartilages.
An examination of an ungulate joint. The leg of a horse is lifted by holding the knuckle joint, inserting the knee, and the second hand performing a strong extension and flexion of the hoof joint.
Study with a wedge ( test with a wedge ). This special research method is used to establish or exclude the disease of the shuttle block. For this purpose, a specially made rectangular wooden wedge with a length of 25 ... 30 cm, a width of 18 ... 20 cm, with an acute angle at the apex of 15 ... 20 ° in relation to the plane is used. The sick horse's limb is placed on the sloping plane of the wedge so that the hooked part of the hoof is lifted up, and the heel is lowered down. After the diseased limb is installed in this way, raise the contralateral (located on the opposite side) healthy limb. In this situation, the posterior region of the diseased hoof is burdened, the tendon of the deep flexor of the finger is stretched and presses against the shuttle bursa and bone. With pain in the area of the shuttle block, the horse tries to release the diseased limb, i.e., to move from the inclined plane to the horizontal (to the ground).
Hot bath. As an auxiliary method of diagnosis in diseases of hoofs, they are immersed in hot (40 ... 45 ° С) water. The appearance of more intense lameness after the application of a hot bath confirms the presence of cracks and fractures of the hoof or shuttle bone.Diagnostic conductive analgesia of the palmar (plantar) nerves. The method is used to block the named nerves, in order to rule out the diagnosis of the disease of the finger and, in particular, the hoof. In these cases, analgesia is performed
4 ... 5% solution of novocaine. The analgesic solution is injected in the area of the pastern, below the common rami communicantes, from the outside, at the level of the thickened lower end of the outer slate, or 2 cm above it, and on the inside - at half the height of the pastern or 2 ... 3 see below. The needle is inserted under the skin at an angle of 45 ° (separately from the syringe) to a depth of 1.5 ... 2 cm from each side along the edge of the tendon of the deep flexor of the finger according to the position of the palmar nerves; then inject 10 ml of a solution of novocaine. After 10 ... 15 minutes, analgesia begins. The disappearance of lameness suggests that the painful process is localized at the site below the site of injection.
Radiography. This is an extremely valuable method of examining hooves. Radiography should confirm a preliminary diagnosis, based on carefully conducted studies.
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