Doping of non-steroidal structure, Kinds of sport...

Non-steroid structure dopings

As for doping, not related to anabolic steroids, it is necessary to say a few words about this class of doping drugs, like diuretics. In connection with the championships in athletic gymnastics and the expansion of the participation of our athletes in international competitions, it became necessary to establish weight categories and a corresponding weight limit at the time of the competition. In weightlifting, this problem has been known for a long time and is very acute. For urgent weight loss in the competitive period, some less competent coaches and athletes recommend taking diuretics, t. diuretics, although it is known that they have long been listed as doping drugs. So, the Bulgarian weightlifters at the Olympiad in Seoul in 1988 were disqualified for the use of diuretics. In addition, in the sports environment, there is an opinion that the use of diuretics contributes to the increased withdrawal from the body of the decomposition products of anabolic steroids and other drugs and thereby helps to reduce their negative side effects and shorten the period of drug withdrawal before the performance. It should be said that the use of diuretics even in the clinic, according to medical indications, requires careful laboratory and medical monitoring, as it is fraught with possible complications. By eliminating the liquid from the body together with the necessary salts for the normal metabolism (for example, potassium required for the normal functioning of the heart muscles), diuretics used without a compensatory diet lead to the development of heart failure. And its danger increases with increasing physical exertion and at the time of the highest competitive efforts, it can lead to acute disruption of cardiac activity. In addition, taking diuretics causes an increase in blood sugar, which can aggravate diabetes, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), allergic reactions, the development of skin diseases. There may also be an exacerbation of liver disease, kidney disease, central nervous system depression, accompanied by drowsiness, lethargy, a sensitivity disorder.

Sports and doping

All types of physical activity are divided by the intensity of the loads at very high, high, medium and low intensity. This corresponds to the level of sports qualification of the extra-class athletes (Olympic champions and world champions), masters of sports of international class, masters of sports, dischargers, physical persons, not engaged in physical culture and engaged in exercise therapy with the purpose of rehabilitation of certain functions given motor activity. Naturally, the requirements to these people, their preparedness, nutrition and pharmacological support will be completely different. However, they have weight limits of their capabilities, which limit the physical working capacity of a person.

It should be borne in mind that these factors limiting the performance depend on the type of physical activity that can be divided according to the classifications of sports into five main groups:

1. Cyclic sports with the main manifestation of endurance (running, swimming, skiing, speed skating, all kinds of rowing, cycling, etc.), when the same movement is repeated many times, a large amount of energy is expended, and the work itself is performed with high and very high intensity. These sports require the support of metabolism, specialized nutrition, especially at marathon distances, when there is a switching of energy sources from carbohydrate (macroergic phosphates, glycogen, glucose) to fat. The control of the hormonal system of different types of metabolism is of great importance both in forecasting and in working capacity correction with pharmacological preparations.

2. Speed-power types, when the main quality is the manifestation of explosive, short in time and very intense physical activity (all sprint distances, throwing heavy athletics, etc.). In most cases, these directions depend on genetic determinants, and the sources of energy to provide such activity are fundamentally different in the manifestation of endurance.

Distinguish the cyclic sequence of motor actions (running) and acyclic (throw). It is very difficult to improve the result on a hundred-meter, while strength and endurance are more prone to training. The same applies to pharmacological correction. Native sprinters have a higher percentage of fast muscle fibers compared to runners for long distances. Speed ​​is a very demonstrative indicator, which undergoes with the increase of age the earliest and most pronounced decline in comparison with strength and endurance. The increase in body weight for all throwers and weightlifters requires special control over the specialized diet and the shift of the catabolic to the anabolic phase of metabolism without the use of anabolic steroids and somatotropin. Sprinters also have unacceptable uncontrolled weight gain. Carbohydrate metabolism and energy sources prevail in them: macroergic phosphates, glycogen and glucose. The tasks of pharmacological correction are becoming clear.

3. Single combats are very numerous types of sports activities (all kinds of wrestling, boxing, etc.). A characteristic feature of energy consumption in martial arts is a non-permanent, cyclic level of physical exertion, depending on the specific conditions of the struggle, although at times they reach a very high intensity. These sports in most cases are quite traumatic, which can be the cause of microcirculation disorders and metabolic processes in the brain, therefore, nootropic drugs should be used as protectors.

4. Game types are characterized by a constant alternation of intense muscular activity and rest, when the athletes are not involved directly in the game episodes. Of great importance are coordination of movements and mental stability. The tasks of pharmacological support are related to the correction of the processes of recovery, energy compensation, improvement of metabolic processes in the brain with the help of vitamin complexes, nootropes, plant and animal adaptogenes, and antioxidants.

5. Complex co-ordinated species are based on the subtlest elements of movement, as it happens in figure skating, gymnastics, diving, shooting, where excellent restraint and attention are required. Physical loads vary widely. For example, to make a complex leap you need a huge explosive force, while shooting requires concentration and less tremor. Of great importance is the increase in mental stability of herbal preparations of soothing action (valerian, hawthorn without alcohol components), nootropics, vitamin complexes, energetically rich products.

Complex technical species are largely associated with the use of technical means (auto racing, bobsleigh, parachuting, sailing and many others). The level of physical activity may not reach very high values, but nervous tension is at the limit of human capabilities, which determines the principles of pharmacological correction - increasing mental stability.

In addition, there are a number of mixed sports, where different types of multi-tribulations are used, including the listed types of physical activity rights. Naturally, the tasks of pharmacological support differ significantly and in principle.

It should be added that there are many problems with the restoration and maintenance of a high intellectual level in chess competitions as a sport.

Thus, there is no reason to believe that there are universal pharmacological agents that could help unequivocally solve the problems of sports pharmacology.

So, sports activity includes almost all kinds of physical working capacity, both dynamic and static. Next, we will consider pharmacological drugs that affect endurance, speed, strength, coordination, taking into account the intensity of physical exertion.

In recent years, depending on the sports in various countries, the following dopes are used (Table 16).

Table 16

Using doping in related sports

Related sports

Doping

Complications

1. Speed-strength types: weightlifting, throwing, bodybuilding, sprinting in track and field, swimming, speed skating, cross-country skiing

Anabolic steroids, somatotropin, gonadotropin, amphetamines, diuretics, etc.

Sharp changes: metabolism, hormonal profile, masculinization in women and male virilization

2. Kinds of sport with the main manifestation of endurance: running, swimming, skiing, cycling, speed skating (long distances)

Anabolic steroids, somatotropin, gonadotropin, blood doping, psychostimulants, etc.

Loss of orientation and consciousness, deaths, violations of hormonal status, etc.

3. Game types: football, basketball, rugby, baseball, hockey and ice-hockey, golf, etc.

Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, marijuana and

other

Lethal outcomes, loss of consciousness, toxic effects

4. Complex co-ordinated kinds of sports: jumps in height, jumps in water, figure skating, gymnastics, fencing, etc.

Alcohol, narcotic analgesics, tranquilizers, beta-blockers, etc.

Narcotic addiction, alcoholism, etc.

5. Martial Arts: all kinds of wrestling, boxing, martial arts, etc.

Narcotic analgesics, marijuana, alcohol

Drug dependence, drug addiction, etc.

In equestrian sport, various dopes are used depending on specific tasks (psychostimulants, tranquilizers, etc.), therefore, doping control of horses is carried out.

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