Contusion articulationis phalangis primae is a closed mechanical damage, horses are observed quite often.
Etiology. In addition to accidental injuries, the tissues in the area of the joint are often damaged by the hoof or horseshoe (located on the same side) of the limb, which is due to forging errors and often with improper limb placement, when the cutting is difficult to eliminate.
Clinical signs. Damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissue is accompanied by a painful swelling, the claudication of the resting limb is noted. The pivot joint is half-bent, the animal is supported by the hooked part of the hoof. With severe bruises, lameness of the supporting type of III degree arises, the animal keeps the limb by weight, without resting on the ground, the contours of the joint are smoothed, the joint capsule is tense; the local temperature is increased. With intra-articular bleeding, fluctuations are expressed, and with blood clotting, crepitation occurs. Passive movements of the joint are painful.
The prognosis is usually favorable, but with prolonged course of the disease, serous-fibrinous arthritis, paraarticular fibrositis or periarthritis can develop, leading to joint stiffness (arthrogenic contracture).
The forecast can be unfavorable in cases when causative factors, such as improper limb placement, which, as a rule, are unremovable, cause permanent trauma. In this case, inevitably, the growth of scar tissue in the subcutaneous tissue and adjacent tissues, often with small foci of abscessing in its thickness. If deep tissue is damaged, the possibility of developing a stable
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The changes in the subsequent course of chronic processes (tendovaginitis, ossifying periarthritis, synovitis).
Diagnostics. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs.
Treatment. It is basically similar to that for bruises. The animal is assigned a cold to the damaged joint in the first hours after the injury and a moderately pressing dressing. Starting from 3 days, it is recommended that the heat, warming compresses, physical methods of treatment, massage, passive and active joint movements. With paraarticular and periarticular fibrositis, iontophoresis of iodine is prescribed, rubbing of resorptive ointments, cauterization. Good results are given by compresses with dimexide and lidase (160 ... 320 UE lidase are added to 100 ml of a 40% solution of dimexide).
Stretching of the joint (distorsio articulationis phalangis primae) is common in horses.
Etiology. They are observed in horses with strong strains, especially in the direction of flexion and extensionality at the time of the jump, as well as in forced lateral movements, when the animal slips on the limbs with excessive strain of the capsule and ligaments of the joint.
The stretching is predisposed to the wrong setting of the limbs, hoof deformation, forging errors, in which the weight of the body is unevenly distributed on the hoof.
Clinical signs. Note the lameness of the resting limb, at rest - the half-bent position, the step - shortening the period of support, flexing the joint at the moment of stopping pressure on the limb. By passive extension, the normal position of the limb joints is easily achieved, which is important when differentiating the stretch from the contracture. In the future, excessive mobility of the joint is observed, which is accompanied by jerky oscillations of it (ejection forward and backward) during support. This important symptom of joint extension is more often expressed on the pelvic limbs.
The prognosis depends on the degree of damage to the ligamentous apparatus of the joint, taking into account the complications that are unavoidable with repeated injuries (ossifying periarthritis, arthrogenic contracture). Hence follows the rule - stretching, not healed within 14 days, it is necessary to treat 4 weeks; in the absence of the expected effect in this period it will take 8 weeks, after which the horse is used only for easy work by a step. Consequently, the prognosis deteriorates with the lengthening of the disease period.
Diagnostics. The rotational test does not provide an opportunity to reliably determine the stretching of the joint, which is due to its anatomical structure, which allows only limited lateral and rotational movements in the bent limb position.
Treatment. An animal is given peace, free from work. To reduce inflammation, cold and a pressure bandage are used. As the inflammatory phenomena decrease, thermal procedures are prescribed. In the normal course of the process after 2 weeks, you can go to a massage, which is done from the bottom up 2 times a day for 5 ... 6 minutes. Then apply a cotton bandage. In the subacute period of the disease a good result is obtained by ion-ionization with iodine ions, compresses with a 0.1% iodine solution in 30 ... 40% dimexide solution. If the joint is significantly stretched with suspicion of rupturing the ligament apparatus and the capsule, a plaster bandage is applied. In subacute and chronic cases shows rubbing of resorptive ointments and point cautery. In the early days, a circular Novocaine blockade is effective.
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220.127.116.11. Dislocation of the prosthetic joint
The dislocation of the prosthetic joint (luxatio articulationis phalangis primae) in horses is relatively rare.
Etiology. The reasons are the same as with stretching, more often this is the rapid pressure of the body's weight on the limbs, set forward or placed under the trunk. With this direction of the acting force, the metacarpal (metatarsal) bone is displaced anteriorly, under the tendons of the extensors of the fingers, or posteriorly, against the sesamoid bones. In this case, there are significant ruptures of the capsule of the joint, grossly injured adjacent tissue (complete dislocation). Dislocation in the lateral or medial side is often incomplete.
Clinical signs. When completely dislocated, the metacarpal (metatarsal) bone is usually shifted forward so that it can touch the distal end of the anterior surface of the prostrate bone. When palpation is established, in addition to the displacement of the metacarpal (metatarsal) bone, excessive mobility is puto due to rupture of the bag and side ligaments. Soon after dislocation, a diffuse, dense swelling is found in the circumference of the joint. At rest and while moving, the animal does not rely on the diseased limb. In the case of complete dislocation, the limb is considerably shortened.
With chronic dislocations, the tissue around the damaged joint grows, the joint capsule is emptied, dislocated to
Nets bone is fixed in a new, abnormal position by fibrous deformations that form a new bag.
The prognosis for incomplete dislocation in young animals is favorable. In other cases, the prognosis is cautious until unfavorable due to the inevitability of complications (deformation of the injured epiphyses, development of ossifying periarthritis, infection) and profound functional impairment.
Diagnostics. Visually and palpably determined abnormal position of bones gives grounds to diagnose dislocation, degree of displacement, restriction of joint mobility.
Treatment. The animal is placed in a room with an abundant bedding. First of all, it is necessary to earlier carry out the correction with the use of combined anesthesia. After that, a fixing plaster bandage is applied to the joints, including the hoofed and carpal ones, which are immobilized for 3 ... 4 weeks. Then a massage is prescribed, and from 7 ... 10 days - short-term wiring. To accelerate the resorption of residual inflammation products, ionophoresis and proteolytic enzymes and preparations can be used.
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