Koloto-cut damage - Forensic medicine

Stabbed damage

Piercing-cutting objects are double-edged (daggers, daggers) and one-sidedly sharp blades (knives of various kinds). The most frequent localization of stab-cut wounds is the trunk, less often the neck, head and limbs. If the wound length is oriented perpendicularly to the direction of the elastic fibers of the skin, it gapes and has a spindle-shaped or crescent shape. If the wound length is parallel to the course of the elastic fibers, the edges of the wound are close together, and the shape is straight. If, during extraction from the body, the plane of the blade of the piercing-cutting object is rotated, an additional incision is made from the edge of the wound near one of its ends. An additional incision may also extend from the end of the wound. In such cases, it is recognized by an arcuate shape. The width of the blade reflects the main incision. The edges of stab wounds are smooth. If the wound is applied with a double-edged blade, then both ends are sharp, if one-sidedly with a sharp blade, then a sharp end forms from the action of the blade, and from the shoe - the end with one or two additional small discontinuities. The hair along the edges of the stab-cut wound is transversely or obliquely cut. The walls of the wound are smooth. The depth of the wound channel, as a rule, prevails over the length and width of the cutaneous wound. When the blade is completely immersed in the body, damage can occur from the action of the heel of the blade and the limiter of the handle of the piercing-cutting object. The heel of the blade can be formed by small hemorrhages, sediments or ruptures of the superficial layers of the skin in the immediate vicinity of the acute end of the wound. Sometimes they substantially modify this end, and the cutting action of the blade is manifested only in the depth of the wound channel.

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The depth of the wound channel, as a rule, corresponds to the length of the part of the blade immersed in the body. When the blade is completely immersed, with emphasis on the limiter of the handle, some compliant parts of the body (for example, the stomach) bend, resulting in a wound channel longer than the length of the blade. Cicatricial wounds are rarely accompanied by significant external bleeding. Usually, internal hemorrhage prevails.

In case of damage to flat bones, the piercing-cutting object is capable of causing small slit-like or sliced-hole fractures. If during the application of several wounded wounds the position of the attacker and his victim did not change or the injuries were caused to the injured, the wounds are located one-sidedly in a limited area of ​​one or two adjacent parts of the body, and the directions of their wound channels, the position of the sharp (action of the blade) and the M-shaped (action of the shoe) of the ends, the orientation of the lengths of cutaneous wounds and the planes of the wound channels coincide. If the position of the attacker and the victim changed during the application of stab wounds, the lesions are on different (including on opposite) surfaces of the body, the wound channels have mutually intersecting or divergent directions, the position of the sharp ends coincides with the position of M-shaped, wound lengths and the planes of the wound channels are located at different angles with respect to each other.

Forensic medical examination of stab-cut lesions allows to establish the type of traumatic acute object, the length, width and thickness of the part of the blade immersed in the body, the number of blades in the blade, the presence of the shoe, the heel and the limiter, the shape of the end part of the blade, the specific piercing-cutting subject, place, direction and number of strokes, orientation at the time of impact of the blade, shoe and plane of the blade in relation to the surface of the damaged part of the body, the presence or absence of mutual movement of the attacker and the victim in the process nana multiple impacts.

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