Organs, systems and apparatus of organs - Anatomy and age physiology

Organs, Systems and Apparatus of Organs

Tissues form organs - parts of the body that have a certain shape, structure and function in the body. Each organ is formed by different types of tissues with the predominance of any one species that performs the basic functions of the organ (for example, in muscles it is muscle tissue, in the brain and spinal cord - nervous, etc.). In the organs there are other types of tissues (epithelial, connective, etc.), but they perform an auxiliary role. In Table. 1.2 shows the localization of various tissues in the organs of the human body.

Table 1.2

Localization of tissues in the organs of the human body


Types of fabric

The structure of the fabric




Cells densely adjoin each other, forming a smooth surface

Skin. Mucous membrane of the oral cavity and esophagus. Alveoli. Nephrons

Cover, protective, excretory (gas exchange, urine release)



Are located among other epithelial cells or form glands

The glands of the skin. Salivary glands. Glands of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract. Glands of internal secretion

Excretory (secretion of sweat, tears), secretory (formation of saliva, digestive juices, hormones)

Atrial (ciliated)

Cells have cilia - Numerous hairs on the surface



Protective (isolation of microorganisms and foreign particles)


Dense fibrous

Heavy fibrous cells with little or no intercellular substance

Skin. Tendons and ligaments. Outer sheath of blood vessels. Cornea eyes

Cover, protective, locomotion

Loose fibrous

Friable interlaced fibrous cells. Intercellular substance has no structure

Subcutaneous fatty tissue. Pericardium. It is part of the conductive neural pathways

Insulating, thermoregulating



Cells lie in capsules. Intercellular substance semitransparent, elastic, dense

Intervertebral discs. Cartilages of larynx, trachea, bronchi, auricle. The surface of the joints, in childhood is in the areas of bone growth

Reference, protective, locomotion


Living cells with long processes connected to each other. Intercellular substance - inorganic salts and ossein protein

Skeleton bones

Support, locomotor, protective

Blood and lymph

Liquid connective tissue. Includes cellular elements and plasma consisting of blood serum and fibrinogen protein

Cardiovascular system (blood). Interstitial fluid, lymphatic vessels (lymph)

Transport. Ensures the constancy of homeostasis. Protective (immunity)



Multi-core cells of cylindrical shape with transverse bands

Skeletal muscles. Heart muscle

Motor (voluntary movements, involuntary rhythmic contractions of the heart muscle - automatic)


Mononuclear spindle-shaped cells

Walls of internal organs, vessels. Muscles of the skin

Motor (involuntary movements of the walls of internal organs, lifting of hair)


The bodies of neurons, diverse in form and size

Form a gray substance of the brain and spinal cord


Dendrites (short branching processes). Axons (long processes, end in organs with branchy ends)


Organ organs that have similar structures, functions and development, are combined into organ systems: digestive, respiratory, excretory, integument, circulatory, lymphatic, nervous, sense organs, endocrine, genital, bone, and muscular (Figure 1.24). Each system is responsible for any one process or several processes necessary to sustain life. For example, the circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels and blood, supplies oxygen and nutrients to all cells of the body, and from them removes metabolic waste. Some systems are united by a single function and get a generalized name, for example the musculoskeletal system includes the bone and muscle systems.

Systems of organs of the human body:

Fig. 1.24. Systems of organs of the human body:

1 - the bones of the skeleton, the cartilage and ligaments constitute the skeletal system that serves as the support of the body; 2 - the muscles that form the muscular system provide motor activity; 3 - the brain and nerves form a nervous system that controls most of the body's functions; 4 - the endocrine system regulates many processes in the body with the help of hormones; 5 - the circulatory system delivers the necessary substances to the cells and takes the waste; 6 - the lymphatic system helps the body fight infection; 7 - digestive system digests food and absorbs nutrients

thematic pictures

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