Physiological mechanisms and methods of endurance training
Endurance (B) - the ability to carry out any activity for a long time without reducing its effectiveness.
Endurance, performance and the ability to resist fatigue are very similar concepts. There are four types of fatigue (Y), respectively, and endurance: mental, sensory, emotional, physical.
Physical fatigue is appropriately divided into: local, where less than 1/3 of the muscles are employed, regional (the work is occupied from 1/3 to 2/3 of the muscles) and global, when more than 2/3 of the muscles are involved in the work. In accordance with this, the types of endurance are also distinguished:
• Local (muscular) endurance is characterized by a stable state of working capacity of the neuromuscular system, late development of protective inhibition in nerve centers;
• The endurance to global work is more often called the term general endurance & quot ;. It reflects the set of functional properties of the body, which are caused by the nonspecific, so-called vegetative, component, the main component of which is the aerobic capacity of the organism.
Identify such types of endurance as static, power, speed, speed-strength (endurance, respectively, to static, power, sprint, acyclic activity).
Endurance is specific. The role of genetic factors in the development of endurance is 80-85% and environmental factors - 20-25%.
There are pedagogical and physiological means of measuring endurance. Pedagogical means include the measurement of time (t) at a given speed (V or power (W) of the work to the limit, measurement of time (t) at the standard length (S) of the distance The concept of physiological means can be compiled by considering the mechanisms of endurance development.
Physiological mechanisms of endurance development
There are three main physiological mechanisms of endurance development: bioenergetic mechanisms (aerobic and anaerobic productivity, or endurance); mechanisms for improving functional stability the activity of various systems of the body, allowing to continue to work with progressive changes in homeostasis and increasing fatigue (great importance is the resistance to hypoxia); the mechanism of development of functional economization (reduction of energy expenditure per unit of work) and increasing the efficiency of the whole organism (reducing the shifts of functions for equal work).
Bioenergetic mechanisms of endurance (working capacity)
Bioenergetic capabilities of the body - the most important for endurance and performance, because working muscles require immediate energy intake. It is known that the only source of energy is ATP, whose reserves are very limited, and therefore the main question is its fastest resynthesis, which is carried out by aerobic and anaerobic routes.
Allocate: alaktatnaya anaerobic productivity (the resynthesis of ATP due to the decay of KrF); glycolytic anaerobic productivity (the resynthesis of ATP by the decomposition of carbohydrates with the accumulation of lactic acid - MC); aerobic productivity (the resynthesis of ATP due to the energy of oxidative phosphorylation of carbohydrates and fats).
Each of these bioenergetic mechanisms of ATP resynthesis can be characterized by different qualitative and quantitative characteristics - the criteria:
• mobility, i.e., the speed of deployment of the mechanism with an output to the level of 100% power: the mobility of the Kp, glycolytic and aerobic mechanism is measured by time and has a ratio of about 1: 10: 100;
• power, reflecting the maximum performance of the mechanism, that is, the speed of energy release; the maximum power is measured in units of energy and correlated, respectively, as 3: 2: 1;
• capacity, characterizing the total amount of energy given by this mechanism: the capacity of these mechanisms is related in the same way as about 1: 10: 100;
• efficiency, reflecting the efficiency of this mechanism, that is, the ratio of energy directly to the resynthesis of ATP, to the total energy expenditure: of all bioenergetic mechanisms, the highest efficiency in the alactate mechanism , the lowest - for glycolytic.
The most important physiological indicators of capacity and capacity of each of the considered bioenergetic mechanisms of efficiency are different.
In alactate mechanism - power indicators:
• Maximum anaerobic power - MAM (determined by the rate of run up the stairs at an angle of 30 ° - Margarie test)
• Peak anaerobic power - PAM, which is registered in a jump upwards from the place (according to Abalakov); the physiological indicator of the capacity of this mechanism is equivalent to the value of the alakta fraction of oxygen debt, which on the average is about 1/3 of the total oxygen debt determined after work.
In glycolytic mechanism the physiological power index is the parameter defined in gazomestrichskih studies, called the nonmetabolic excess of CO2 release due to accumulation in the blood of lactic acid and displacement of C0 2 from bicarbonates; The physiological indicator of the capacity of this mechanism is the lactate fraction of the oxygen debt, which is on average 2/3 of the total oxygen debt, and the maximum amount of blood lactate determined in the test with three one-minute maximum loads with shorter rest intervals (3, 2 and 1 min-H .I Volkov).
In the aerobic mechanism , the power indicator is the MPC value, and the capacity is the retention time of the MPC.
One of the most informative in bioenergetics is the so-called anaerobic exchange threshold (ANSP), which characterizes the effectiveness of the aerobic mechanism. It is known that the normal content in the blood of lactic acid is 10-20 mg% or 1-2 mM/l. The glycolytic mechanism leads to the accumulation of lactate, exceeding the threshold of 36 mg% (4 mM/l) is considered the onset of acidosis.
Since the definition of ANPO for lactate is associated with blood sampling, a variety of indirect, more accessible and physiological methods were offered that are convenient to use in the training process. The most popular of these were the determination of the speed of the ANSP (the speed of movement at a distance at which the lactate value is 4 mM/L), the magnitude of the ANSP in% of the MIC (the amount of working oxygen consumption at which the reference lactate is reached), the heart rate , which corresponds to lactate 4 mM/l) and others. Of course, indirect indicators of ANSPs should be compared with direct determinations of lactate and in case of high correlation of these indicators one can fully trust them. However, in view of the high variability of physiological parameters, these studies are recommended to be carried out strictly individually. For a certain period (usually no more than 3-4 weeks), indirect indicators of ANSP can be used, and then the study should be repeated.
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