PREVENTION OF DISEASES OF COPEYSDiseases of the distal segment of the limbs - a fairly common pathology, it dramatically reduces the productivity and performance of animals, thereby causing great economic damage to farms, so prevention should be comprehensive, covering as many livestock.
Diseases of hooves in farm animals are caused by numerous causes, some of which are well known, others are not well understood and are due to the complex interaction of various factors that may be the direct cause of hoof disease or, interacting with one another, causing the development of a particular pathology (Figure 4.19).
Measures aimed at the prevention of hoof disease.
Preventive measures, especially mass prophylaxis, must be built taking into account these main causes that cause this or that pathology.
1. Particular attention should be paid to the compliance with zoogynamic requirements for the care and maintenance of animals, is provided -
Fig. 4.19. The causes of illnesses hooves
their full and balanced feeding. Compliance with these requirements prevents a number of diseases (rheumatic hoof inflammation, hoof rot, specific ulcer of the sole, laminitis, etc.) and increases resistance of the organism to unfavorable environmental factors and accidental injuries.
2. In pedigree work, selecting animals in the herd, along with breed, productivity, body stats, pay attention to the condition of the hooves, their shape, strength and quality of the horn.
3. Monitor the condition of the floor in the rooms (troubleshoot). Pay particular attention to the quality of the slatted floors, their conformity to the species and age of the animals. During the construction of cattle-breeding premises, monitor the quality of the products for the floor and their installation. Places of running and walking animals, pastures to clean from foreign objects, rubbish, rubbish it. etc.
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4. Maintain optimal air humidity and cleanliness of the floors in the rooms. The hoof horn can acquire increased humidity with insufficient ventilation and untimely manure removal or its delay on the floors. The wet horn is more erased and less resistant to mechanical damage. And vice versa, when dry, the horn loses its elasticity, cracks, breaks. In these cases, it is recommended to pass animals through foot water baths, groom on dew, etc.
5. Provide the animals with regular movements that are very important for the normal growth and development of the hoof horn and its erasure. In summer, this is achieved by keeping it in the pasture, and in winter - by a sufficient mozio (up to 1.5 km), which increases the resistance of distal limb tissues to various injuries.
6. Regularly conduct orthopedic examination, identify various injuries to hoofs and provide effective medical care, not allowing serious complications. To this end, to examine animals and identify individuals with lameness, difficulty in movement, trauma. Animals that enjoy pasture, a walk, it is convenient to inspect at the time of pasture or corral in the premises.
7. For the prevention of severe complications and for the therapeutic purpose for mass lesion of the hooves, use foot baths with 10% solution of copper sulfate or 4 ... 5% formalin solution.
More often use 5% (5 liters formalin and 95 liters of water) formalin bath. In this concentration, an unpleasant odor is completely tolerable. Formaldehyde has a strong disinfecting effect. It strengthens the protective properties of the horny capsule by sealing it. The formalin solution is three times cheaper than a similar solution of copper sulfate. When preparing solutions, it is necessary to observe precautions and safety measures (wear glasses, rubber gloves, etc.). The disadvantage of these solutions is the possibility of irritation of the corolla and soft tissues.
The dimensions of the bath and the amount of solution must be such that when the animal moves, all the hooves are immersed to the arch of the interdigital slit. For cattle, a 3.5 x 1 m bath with rounded sides 15 cm high is installed. The solution is usually changed after running 500 cows. At the bottom of the bath make a drain hole, which can be connected to the sewer system.
A uniform technique for the use of foot baths has not been developed. Depending on the nature of the disease, the mass character of the lesion, there are various recommendations. Baths are usually used for 2 ... 3 days 2 times a day, and then take a break up to 14 days. A. Sanin with unbonded cows on a deep non-replaceable litter, applying foot baths with 10% copper sulphate solution at the outlet from the milking parlor 2 times a day, achieved a decrease in the incidence of hooves from 26.6 to 6.8%.
Some authors, when the cows were tied, processed hooves with a 10% solution of copper sulfate with a sprayer once a week. At the same time, the incidence rate also decreased. A more effective method of prevention is keeping the animals in such baths for 10 ... 15 minutes, which, in addition to disinfection, also strengthens the hoof horn.
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8. Periodic disinfection of rooms and limbs in animals is also important. In the industrial complex for the cultivation and fattening of young cattle, it is possible to reduce the damage to the hooves during disinfection of the floor with 0.5 ... 1% potassium permanganate solution in the presence of animals. In this case, use an AUC or a disinfection unit on any mobile chassis. At the same time, the hoofs of animals are carefully washed from the hose.
9. In order to strengthen the hoof horn, it is recommended to feed the animals with elementary sulfur: cattle 3 g per 100 kg of mass, sheep 1.5 ... 3 g per head per day. It is fed in a group way in a mixture with mixed fodder (VA Molokanov).
10. A special role in the prevention of diseases of hooves is assigned to care for them. Care of hooves of animals, especially on dairy complexes, should be included in the technological cycle as part of the overall production process. In addition to specially trained persons, the cows near the milking plant should have a room for storing and restraining several animals before and after treatment. It should be located on the path from the milking plant so that the animals can be easily separated from the general group. It installs a machine for fixing animals.
Currently, there is a machine for cattle, which provides a device for fixing the limbs when caring for hoofs. Many farms have machines of their own design.
Near the machine should be equipped with a workplace with good lighting, running water. It is necessary to provide a place for tools and dressings, medicines.
In cattle, the hoof is cut and cleaned as necessary. In animals that are kept in summer in pasture, the hoof must be cleared 2 times a year: before pasture on pasture and when stalled. With loose cage content of cows on the slatted floors, the hoof is also cleared 2 times a year, with the stowage tied maintenance, the hoofs of cows and bulls are repeated after 3 ... 4 months. It is recommended to clean the hoof in cows after milking.
Sows and boar-producers of the hoof are cut 2 ... 3 times during the year. And the sows care for the hoofs immediately after weaning piglets.
The trimming and cleansing of the hoof is also carried out at least 2 times a year, this is a good preventive tool for hoof rotten sheep.
In animals contained in industrial complexes, it is necessary to make higher demands on the functional state of limbs and hoofs. The system of preventive measures for hoof diseases must be built taking into account the state of animals, material and technical and economic opportunities in the construction and equipment of premises.
Prevention of hoof diseases provides for the creation of normal conditions for the growth of the hoof horn and the prevention of various mechanical injuries to hooves.
Special attention in industrial complexes should be given to the quality of the sexes. The floors must be level, they should not be filled with slurry. Excessive moistening reduces the protective properties of the hoof horn. All sharp edges of the slit floor, shells must be carefully sealed. The elements of the floor should not be shaky.
Complexes need to be formed by animals that have the correct setting of limbs and the form of hoofs, and it is desirable to complete the milk complexes with calves from complexes by
the cultivation of repair young animals. In these cases, the incidence of hoof diseases decreases.
No one doubts the advisability of clearing hoofs, but not everyone gives it due attention. Cleansing hooves should be included in the general system of prophylaxis of non-communicable diseases or in the plan of veterinary-sanitary measures. For work on the care of hoofs, it is advisable to employ workers on a part-time basis, and in large economic associations to create self-supporting teams.
Cleansing the hooves is carried out in the machine, fixing the limbs with the help of appropriate tools. Under the belly, wide belts are fed, which helps prevent the animal from falling. In quiet animals, this operation can be performed without a loom, fixing the thoracic limb with hands using a rope thrown over the trunk. The pelvic limb is strengthened with the help of a shinning twist and other techniques. Only in some cases resort to the collapse of the animal or inject neuroleptic drugs.
When trimming and clearing hoofs, use hand tools: hoof forceps, ungulate knives, chisels, rasp, hammer, etc. For convenience, it is desirable to have a pedestal on which hoofs are treated. In some farms electric mills of the rotary rasp type are used, but due to design flaws they are not widely used.
The hoof is cleaned of dirt. Clearing starts from the sole. With an ungulate knife, only the old, chapped, gutted (dead) horn is removed. Remove the horn from the sole side carefully, since its thickness in this place is only
2.5 ... 5 mm. Thin out the sole can not. If the hoof wall is overgrown, its sole edges are cut with hoof forceps, mites, chopped with a chisel, chisel. Then the plantar surface is leveled with a rasp and it becomes horizontal, with a small depression at the edge of the inner wall at the border of the crumb and the sole itself.
After clearing and pruning the hoofs with the correct setting of the limbs should be the correct shape, and the axis of the finger should be straight.
In sheep, a hoof is cleared and trimmed on a lying animal, fixed with hands on the ground or special tables. From the sole side, only the exfoliated horn and then the outgrown horn of the hoof wall at the level of the sole are removed. The hoof horn is cut with hoof knives, small hoof ungulates, garden knives, etc.
In sows and boars in-pproizvoditeley clear and cut the claw on a standing animal, fixing it with a loop over the upper jaw, or on an animal lying in a lying position. Use the same tools as sheep. The horn on the sole side is removed very carefully, only the crumbling is cut off. It must be remembered that from the side of the sole between the crumb and the sole of the hoof sole there is a slit hollow with a living horn. After clearing the soles, remove the horn of the plantar margin of the horn wall to the level of the sole. Pigs have more developed external claw, and therefore do not tend to give cloves the same amount.
Safety in clearing and pruning hooves. Persons carrying out trimming and trimming of hooves and participating in fixing animals must be physically strong, capable of working and are familiar with the methods of handling animals and fixing them.
The workplace must be properly equipped and free of foreign objects. At the workplace should be provided not only the necessary tools, but also dressings, disinfectants, remedies in case of injury to the animal at the time of cleansing the hoof or detecting a pathological process.
Being near the animal, when processing, you can not put your feet together, squat down. The posture should be such that, if the animal is restless, you can transfer the weight of the body to the retracted leg, push off the hand from the animal.
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