According to professional specifications of the faculty of Medical of Ontario, the control expectation is not limited by nurses who are in formal authority positions; all nurses, no subject of what kind the positions they are, have obligation to show leadership. Authority requires knowledge to understand not only our very own beliefs, ideals and behaviour affecting others, but also other's beliefs, and values to build value, trust, and integrity in a health care team. This course requires students choose a theoretical construction to guide creating a learning plan, and then applying the idea to a practice task for the intended purpose of expanding their point of view of medical practice as an independent thinkers in the organizational or global degree of medical center or community setting up. My project record will review and evaluate how behaviourist learning theory (BLT) directs my learning activities in professional medical practice as an unbiased thinker to prepare myself in optimizing my future nursing practice. It offers two components: knowledge and software. The knowledge element will involve critiquing and comparing relevant content about the relationship between the years of nursing workforce and selection of control style from five recent scholarly articles, determining their durability and limitation, as well as guiding my nursing practice to achieve my learning goals. The application form component includes the way the bought knowledge was useful to guide my critical thinking process for figuring out the true simple fact of relationship in working environment between the decades of nursing workforce and selection of control style, as well as the obstacles I have experienced.
BLT views learning as the merchandise of the stimulant conditions and the response; its emphasis is mainly on what is immediately observable. Behaviourist may closely observe replies and then manipulate the surroundings to triage more desired stimulus to bring the designed change (Bastable, 2008, p. 54). That is the ideas I choose the stimulant conditions - different choice of leadership style from different generation of medical workforces in my questionnaire survey project, and the response - my learning final result from the job, as the central notion from BLT as books research topic to acquire related knowledge and put it on to my job about the relationship between generational variety and selection of leadership in my own clinical placement environment.
Literature Review / Five Relevant scholarly Articles
In her article, Hahn (2009) evidently realized today's the truth is that nursing workforce is made up of multigenerational staff. Nursing professionals and their associates might hold different attitudes, beliefs, work ethics, and job objectives. The generation distance increases and creates more opportunities for misunderstanding and discord. For both leaders and associates, the understanding generational dissimilarities would advantage in creating power and opportunity or a way to obtain stifling stress and discord. How to approach the task from the multigenerational diversity and create a highly operating and cohesive medical team are current centers for the nurse manager to be an effective innovator. Although Hahn didn't directly describe which management style would fit current workforce situation, the recommended strategies in her article for professionals to effectively deal with a multigenerational team reveal the transformational authority to be the choice as an efficient leader. Her argument was supported by previous studies done by Ulrich (2001), Zemke, Raines and Filipczak (2001).
According to the research done by Cummings, MacGregor, Davey, Lee, Wong and Lo, et al (2010), some kinds of management might be possible to lead to negative results. They made their research from 10 electric databases which include 53 published quantitative studies, then used content research to investigate these studies; 64 outcomes emerged off their analysis were categorised into five categories: (1) work place factors, (2) productivity and success, (3) staff associations with work, (4) staff satisfaction with work, role and pay, and (5) staff health and wellbeing. Their research found the management styles that focused on people and connections, such as transformational, resonant, supportive, and thought, were reported in 24 studies, which were associated with higher nurse job satisfaction; whereas the control styles that focused on duties, such as dissonant, instrumental and management by exception, were reported in 10 studies, which were associated with lower nurse job satisfaction. Therefore, they concluded that the authority that centered on task completion alone is not sufficient to attain optimum results for the medical labor force; transformational and relational command are needed to enhance nurse satisfaction, recruitment, retention, and healthy work conditions, especially in this current multigenerational workforce.
Differently, Stanley (2008, 2010) argued that congruent authority would be the the one that can facilitate greater effectiveness when coping with generational issues. Because this process of control rests on the market leaders' principles and beliefs that are confirmed on market leaders' role modelling with their personal medical / healthcare or organizational values; the actions of the management style are matched up (or are congruent) with follower's principles and beliefs when interacting with multigenerational employees. Enthusiasts who've the same or similar worth will support and follow these leaders for their own values alignment. While knowing the difference of values and beliefs that are truly been around between your generational communities, Stanley emphasized that leader's key nursing / health care values are likely to offer significant common floor for this command method of ensure it'll be employed effectively. Kowalski, Bradley and Pappas' research (2006) appears to be in a supportive position to Stanley's debate.
In her article, from the efficiency and positive final result of management in a health care company, Robbins and Davidhizar (2007) articulated there's a direct hyperlink between authority style and staff retention, satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Currently, the changing faces in healthcare workforces pushes the management of medical on the border of the change in general management strategy using effective and appropriate command to prompt better success in getting and maintaining staff satisfaction, staff retention, and then, in long haul, enhancing patient satisfaction. Personnel retention and satisfaction will be the driving makes for achieving the patient satisfaction. Checking with transactional leadership in authority strategy, objective and eyesight, communication, relationship-building, they argued that transformational command works more effectively in increasing and maintaining personnel satisfaction, retention, and patient satisfaction in health care organizations. Poor authority on a nursing unit causes unsatisfied, unmotivated, and less dedicated staff. The underlying important is that a transformational leader has the ability to effectively speak the vision, mission, and empower nursing staff, which in turn build and helps bring about a wholesome working environment for the whole team.
Generally, Arsenault (2004) understood that today's workforce is more diverse than ever. There are various diverse issues. One of them is generational variances, which is created by a distributed collective field of emotions, attitudes, tastes, and dispositions. Relatively, the distinctions in the unique attitudes, beliefs, and beliefs of every generation establishes how each generation views control, and ranks respected command characteristics, which correlates with their choice in control style and favorite leaders. He figured generational dissimilarities are the best diversity issue that must definitely be recognized and realized by organizations and must be resolved in developing current and future market leaders. The leaders of organizations need to recognize and understand that a distinctive persona, which is developed from generational difference and already translated into a mind-set that confirmed in different feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, choices, and embodied activities in working setting. Accordingly, this mind-set creates variations in authority style - how a person of your technology will lead or that they would prefer to be led.
In summation, five researches come to the common port, that is, the generational diversity is a present issue in labor force that organization and leaders must recognize and understand in creating effective and profitable authority strategy and style in creating a wholesome working environment. However, for what's the correlation between generations and choice of management style, Stanley (2008, 2010)'s articles reached his unique interface; it argued the congruent command will be the one which can facilitate higher effectiveness when coping with generational issues. The research done Cummings, MacGregor, Davey, Lee, Wong and Lo, et al (2010) plainly reached the final outcome that transformational and relational control styles will enhance nurse satisfaction, recruitment, retention, and healthy work environments in the current multigenerational workforce; because their research was based on extensive search of related data source, so their realization derived from the evidence-based literature review is highly credential and statistically significant. Also, Hahn (2009) and Robbins and Davidhizar (2007) generally articulated the medical leaders should take transformational control as the key idea of their management, but their articles do not show strong data to support their argument. Arsenault's article emphasized the generational variety of workforces and its own impact on leadership, but he actually did not figure out which leadership may be the effective in current working environment.
Summary of Behaviourist Learning Theory (BLT)
According to Bastable's publication (2008, p. 54-55), whether interacting with animals or people, BLT views the training process as a relatively simple chain or pattern; the concentration of BLT is mainly on the occurrence that is directly observable stimulus conditions and the organizations formed in the learning process; the learning process is known as the product of the stimulus from the surroundings and the replies. In order to enhance the learning process resulting in the desired final result, behaviourists or learners can closely observe and change the environment through the use of operant conditioning techniques of positive or negative reinforcement (Skinner, 1974, 1989) to increase or decrease the stimulus, thus, to bolster or reduce the responses to effect a result of the designed change.
Plan of Implementation
Based on my learning goal (see appendix A), I applied the obtained understanding of BLT to my learning process through a survey job about the generational difference in the perceptive response in their admiring command style based on their different emotions, attitudes, beliefs, values, working ethics, personal preferences, and embodied activities in working setting up. Each response to the review questionnaire is one of the stimuli for my learning process. What I learned form the job is the response of the training process. I designed a survey questionnaire (see appendix B) about the correlation between generational difference and choice of leadership styles, randomly sent out to 55 staff in two treatments items of two private hospitals, and 53 replies has been gathered; the statistically valid representative sampling size is 96. 36%. Statistical evaluation on the response has been done (Table 1). Poster demonstration (Appendix C) has been presented in my medical placement product for opinions.
The Rationale of Choosing Behaviourist Learning Theory (BLT)
BLT suggests the training process is the merchandise of the stimulus from the surroundings and the replies to the stimulus; it views the training process as a reoccurring string or circuit between stimulus and response through operant fitness techniques of favorably or negatively boosting stimulus. Learning will happen as the stimulus is positively or negatively improved. Such a theoretic platform can be applied to health teaching process (Bastable, 2008, p. 54-60). The designation for student's job from the course format is about the learning from the project about a nursing issue in a worldwide or organizational degree of a clinic or community setting. Predicated on the attained knowledge from BLT, my intention of my project design is to see the replies from the review as stimulus for my learning about the choice on management style in a health care team - staff would be either as a innovator or a team member. Each response is one of the stimuli for my learning. More choice selectively occurred on one particular control style can be an increased stimulus for my learning that will give me the idea of which authority is most admired in current healthcare team. In my own future career, I'd work as the team member or a team leader; I have to prepare my do it yourself to be proficient for both of these assignments. I am seeking to apply BLT to my self teaching and self applied learning process. Actually, educating and learning are the two phases of 1 process.
Summary of the procedure Involved in Making use of BLT
From the literature review, the generational difference in the perceptive response in their admiring control style predicated on their different feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values, working ethics, tastes, and embodied activities in working setting was found (Stanley, 2008, 2010; Arsenault, 2004; Weston, 2006; Kramer, 2010; Swearingen & Liberman, 2004; Robbins and Davidhizar, 2007; Hahn, 2009; Cummings, MacGregor, Davey, Lee, Wong and Lo, et al, 2010). Predicated on this finding, my job designed a review questionnaire to ask two questions: (1) what is your generation? (2) transactional or transformational leader: which one you want to be or like? The answers to these two questions will give me two kinds of information: what's this content of current workforces and what kind of authority style is admired more in the working setting. The answer for each and every respondent could be viewed as one of the stimuli for my response - my learning consequence for my future choice of command in future profession.
55 copies of questioner were arbitrarily distributed to health care team of two medication devices of two hospitals, including nurses, social staff, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, manager, nursing educators, and unit supervisors / coordinators, medical teacher, and nursing students. 53 copies of responses have been accumulated. Data has been coded and statistically analysed. The percentage of each era in medical care groups, and the percentage of selecting transactional or transformational innovator from each generation, and from the total sampling were calculated. The finding demonstrates the transformational authority style is admired most in current working environment. This finding has been backed from the books review of this statement above.
Discussion of how Gained Knowledge was Built-into Learning Process
The major the different parts of stimulus and response of BLT were used in my learning process. Before my task survey, I had fashioned qualitative idea about the generational difference in beliefs, values, career expectation, working ethics and orientation, but no quantitative idea about such difference, no idea about how precisely much their difference was in choosing working sett control style. Through the review, I get the idea about how exactly much each era constitutes the content of health care workforce in these two models: Veterans are retired, SENIORS is 19%, Era X is 53%, and Generation Y is 28%; the generation X and Y already constitutes 81% of the workforces. Among 10 answers from Baby Boomers, 2 answers chose transactional leader (20% of the era), 8 answers chose transformational innovator (80% of the generation); among 28 answers from Era X, 4 answers chose transactional head (14. 3% of the era), 24 answers chose transformational head (85. 7% of the technology); among 15 answers from Era Y, 1 answer selected transactional leader (6. 7% of the technology), 14 answers selected transformational leader (93. 3% of the generation). Among the total samplings, 86. 8% of answers chose transformational leader, only 13. 2% of answer select transactional innovator. The finding also shows a style of the major options from each generation on the command style: from Baby Boomers to Era Y, the ratio of the responses lessens in choosing transactional innovator, and percentage rises in choosing transformational head. It clearly demonstrates the factor between decades in admiring control style based on their different emotions, attitudes, beliefs, tastes, and embodied activities in working environment. The information analysed and concluded from the review is the sought stimulus for my learning - it offers me the theory which authority style could succeed and productive in a healthcare working environment. The multiple sorts of information extracted from the review like the increased stimulus positively manipulated by behaviourist to fortify my response in advocating transformational management as the style I am going to choose to be my preferred one in working environment.
Challenge Encountered and Related Management
Because my job about learning process includes the questioner study, the challenge arises from the look and execution of the survey process.
The first problem is the study of this job is not a formal and academics survey. It really is an anonymous mock survey. It generally does not involve in virtually any interesting discord and preserve any personal information about responder's name, exact years, and gender, etc. Its goal is bound to get the true information about the authority style choice from different era in the real working setting up for my own specialized medical learning process. So, it was not submitted to university or college ethics committee to get pre-approval. The management strategy is private review and keeping the study result within the training process of this course.
The second concern is the look of the questioner survey. As students project, there is absolutely no funding for rewarding the individuals. Staff are busying with daily assignment and don't have spare time and compassion to answer too complicated questioner. The management strategy is to simplify the questionnaire design as much as possible, but it continues to be remained in detail enough to acquire enough information to meet my learning goal.
The third challenge is the limitation of sampling size. As students task, it is impossible to acquire enough time and financial learning resource to take review in multiple devices of multiple healthcare facilities. The management strategy is to utilize the chance of my working unit at another medical center and clinical location unit at St. Michael's hospital to adopt my survey so that the sampling process could be more statistically valid and the finding could be more statistically representative from the limited sampling size.
Outcome of the Task and Evaluation
The end result of the job is the finding of my study truly shows the generational difference in choosing leadership style in real working environment, which is supported from the books review. The results of the project also reached my learning goal of this project: it uncovers the reality of generational difference in choosing control style and future craze in real working environment; and the finding is strong enough as enhanced stimulus to my response in my own learning process predicated on BLT.
Evaluation Criteria of Self-Evaluation of Learning Plan and Planning Change
In my learning plan, the criterion of self-evaluation for knowledge aspect was set up as: able to decide on a specific theoretical model of leadership style predicated on current nursing environment. To better reflecting the training experience from the task, I will change it as: able to choose related scholarly publication and a specific theoretical construction of leadership style based on current medical working environment for literature review to acquire knowledge in guiding my learning process and practice project.
For application component, the criterion of self-evaluation was create as: in a position to develop questionnaires of assessing staff nurse's worth, beliefs and expectation on their choice of authority style. To raised reflecting the training experience from the task, I will alter it as: (1) able to develop questionnaires of examining staff nurse's principles, values and expectation on the choice of command style; and (2) in a position to analyze the study result and find out the significant finding.
Personal Expansion and Development
Before this specialized medical placement, I did so have basic idea about the generational difference in thoughts, attitudes, beliefs, prices, tastes, and embodied activities in working environment. However, I did so not need clear idea about the generational difference in choosing leadership style in real working environment. Through applying BLT to evaluate staff's values, values, expectation, frame of mind about the work and work-life quality, and expectation of each generation on the choice of leadership style within the multiple generational cohorts, I found (1) current healthcare workforces is a three technology cohort, not really a four generation cohort that was articulated in almost all of earlier literatures, because Veteran technology is retired already; (2) from SENIORS to technology X and Y, the ratio of personnel who choose transactional control style is linearly decreasing, the ratio of personnel who choose transformational command style is linearly increasing; (3) currently, generation X is the majority in healthcare workforce, and technology Y is within the next place; in these two generations, the percentage of personnel who selected transformational leadership style is 86% and 93%, which produces a specific information that transformational authority style will continue to work better on their behalf. Totally, the results of the task informs me that in my future career, either as a team member or a team head, transformational leadership was the style I will choose to work relatively in a team or lead a team effectively.
According to the learning objective and coaching strategy of this course, a learning plan and practice task plan were developed based on the chosen theoretic platform. The project of study was integrated in two medicine items of two nursing homes. The survey final result was statistically analysed and poster display was offered in the medical placement product. This report summarizes the obtained knowledge through the reviewing of five scholarly articles and the chosen theoretic framework, discussed the explanation on theoretic construction choosing, and the major concepts of BLT - stimulus and response, which have been applied in my own learning process. Also, the outcome of the project, experienced problems, possible personal development and development obtained from the task are reviewed.
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