Dementia: Impact of and Support Needs

Task 3

A. People who have Dementia

3. 1. A In your own words clarify the differing consequences of the impairment or type of disability in relation to

a. Individual

A person with dementia faces a number of different challenges. In addition to the renowned effect of the condition which is gradual memory loss, the most basic of things and or activities are problematic for them to execute. Dementia affects someone's mental and physical abilities thus manifesting in a demented person's inability to perform activities of daily residing in an effective and efficient fashion.

Apart from this, a person with dementia also offers difficulty with communication. They are not able to effectively communicate what they would like to say which often results to frustration and fits of aggressiveness. Furthermore, this also results to poor social interaction with others. They cannot carry meaningful conversations plus they may believe that they are generally misunderstood which isolates them and withdraws them from the items which they used to enjoy doing. They could also manifest various behavior changes which they are not aware of.

b. The family/whanau

Taking care of a dementia person is very difficult- particularly if they are your family member. The care and support they need will be permanent which means that it may cause various financial problems for the family. In the later stages of dementia, the client will require professional support that may need more finances from the family.

Also, your client will need continuous attention and support which may cause stress on the part of the family. They may lose their social life because their time is eaten up by their tasks with caring for the client. Members of the family may neglect themselves and this could cause various health problems for them. They'll be under very much stress and this may probably lead to burn out.

c. The carers

The carers face an extremely challenging task when caring for a dementia client. They have got to be sure that the client is watched over constantly, that the medications receive on time plus they also have to look at a lot of safety measures because dementia clients tend to wander during the day. Furthermore, caring for a dementia client is a long-term task; thus, this might also lead to high levels of stress and finally burn out for the carers. Dementia clients may exhibit challenging behaviors which may frustrate carers.

3. 2 A The progression/development of the signs and symptoms (conditions/disease pathway) associated with the specific group chosen.

Dementia is not a specific disease. It really is a term used for an overall term used for a wide variety of symptoms which are all associated to a progressive lack of memory and or cognitive skills which for an extent affects a person's ability to perform normal everyday tasks. This disease is caused by damage in the mind. The slow and ongoing harm to the brain is caused by a build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain. This abnormal build-up is different for numerous kinds of dementia

Symptoms of dementia usually start slow and gradually get worse that are evident in varying stages of the disease- mild, moderate, severe. At differing extent, clients with dementia experience a progressive deterioration in their cognitive function- to include their memory, cognition, communication and judgment.

3. 3. A

- Within your own words discuss the way in which the impairment impacts on the diverse dynamics of the family/whanau

A dementia client's family often faces various difficulties. The impairment influences the family dynamics because of the difficulty of looking after a demented member. They will face financial constraints because they would have to cover medications and support that your client needs. This task also involves a lot of physical efforts, thus it may lead to high levels of stress and burnout. Family activities may be disrupted and the member's social life may be afflicted because their time will be greatly centered on looking after their family member with dementia. Furthermore, the stress of role reversal is also present- the children who were once taken cared of by their parents now have to step up to the role and look after them.

- How the individual, family/whanau and carers interact and respond to evolving stressors

a. Individual

The client will exhibit more challenging behaviors which may affect their safety. Their forgetfulness may progress and worsen. They may likewise have more episodes of aggression due to increased frustration from their current situation. They may be irritable during the day and be more difficult to take care of them. The high degrees of stress could also worsen their difficulty in communicating with others. They could find it harder to express their thoughts and needs.

b. Family/whanau

Family members may feel higher levels of stress which might lead to burn out. They may believe that the responsibility is too much for them to handle. Family members may seek the assistance of other relatives or carers in handling your client. They may experience high anxiety rather than be willing to activate in social activities with others.

c. Carers

The clients may exhibit more difficult behaviors which mean that the task accessible for the carers become more difficult. They will be under higher degrees of stress and anxiety. As a result, they could feel burn out and may need a while faraway from work. Furthermore, they may also seek the help with their other colleagues to take care of the client.

- How the Code of Rights is applied to the precise group of men and women selected

a. To be treated with respect- Regardless of whether your client is suffering from dementia, he still has to be treated with respect because he is a individual. Carers should always provide privacy when doing their cares and their choices must get proper importance.

b. To freedom from discrimination, coercion, harassment and exploitation- Clients should be treated equally. Regardless of their race or gender, they should receive equal care and support off their carers. They should also not be coerced to do things that are out of these will. For example, if your client refuses to shower, he should not be given false promises merely to comply. Measures should be taken to ensure that their dignity is maintained at all times. Privacy is very important when doing cares.

c. Right to effective communication- It might be difficult to communicate with a client with dementia but it is their right to be communicated to in a powerful manner. It's the duty of the carers to make sure that effective ways to communicate with your client is adapted and used when dealing with them. This means that their needs and concerns are acknowledged. For instance, if your client is slow in picking up things which are thought to them, the carer should talk slowly and evidently if needed, repeat what they say to make sure that the client has understood.

d. Right to support- Clients have right to be visited by their own families for support. It is actually a big help to them if they are constantly around people who they trust. Families should be permitted to go to the client openly. Contact amounts of members of the family should be available in order to easily contact them when your client wants to see them.

e. To services of a proper standard- Facilities which house dementia clients must definitely provide the correct services which they need. The carers must learn to handle these kinds of clients to ensure that the care delivered is suitable and beneficial. Proper equipment should also be used for clients according to their different needs. For example, if a dementia client needs a walker or a hoist for transfers, carers must make sure that these are used and designed for them.

-The needs (support and other) that you've identified for the specific group of folks selected.

People with dementia have a variety of needs. Some of which are the following
  • Speech and language therapist- to help them in their communicating difficulties.
  • They also need support in doing various activities of everyday living such as getting dressed, going for a bath and eating because they often cannot do these themselves. However, it is also important to allow them to do things that they can do for themselves.
  • Occupational therapist to help and encourage them in taking part in various activities which helps them enhance their social skills.
  • They also needs to be assisted in participating in meaningful and positive interaction with other people/residents.
  • Support must be centered on helping clients maintain their quality of life.
  • Medication management is also important to help control some symptoms or ramifications of the disease to worsen such as episodes of aggression/anxiety.
  • Their family and carers also needs to be aware of the support available to them. This can be done by awareness programs and other styles of educational support.
  • The people handling them should also be familiar with the value of regular check-ups with the respective doctors in order to be aware of the progression of the disease.

3. 4. A

References
  • Alzheimers New Zealand; 2012; Progression of Dementia; retrieved from: http://www. alzheimers. org. nz/about-dementia/progression-of-dementia
  • Alzheimer's Association; 2014; What is Dementia?; retrieved from: http://www. alz. org/what-is-dementia. asp
  • Alzheimer's Society; 2014; The Progression of Dementia; retrieved from: http://www. alzheimers. org. uk/progression/
  • Alzheimer's Society; 2014; Caring for a Person with Dementia; retrieved from: http://alzheimers. org. uk/Caring_for_someone_with_dementia/

B. People with autism spectrum disorders

3. 1. B In your own words clarify the differing consequences of an impairment or kind of disability with regards to

a. Individual

People afflicted with autism spectrum disorder tend to be regarded as not the same as the whole. Though it is not readily admitted, it is inevitable these clients do face social discrimination at a certain extent especially from people who lack enough understanding of their disorder. It is hard for clients to create social bonds because they often behave differently- depending on the type of disorder that they have. Most clients exhibit challenging behaviors such as tantrums, mood swings and aggression.

Clients also face a number of physical difficulties. Most conditions under the autism spectrum disorder cause the individual to not have the ability to perform daily tasks for themselves, making them dependent on members of the family and carers.

b. The family/whanau

The family may be under a lot of stress as they take care of a loved one with autism. As stated, clients with this disorder often exhibit challenging behavior, thus it could be very tiring and sometimes frustrating to care for them. Family members will have to look after them constantly to ensure their safety and cater to their needs. Financial constraint will also be another problem.

Because of the duty at hand, family may neglect themselves and their health. They may focus almost all their time on your client and forget to live a life of their own. This will affect their social relationships and oftentimes, their work as well. Furthermore, parents may also feel self-blame. They could think that their child's condition is their fault.

c. The carers

The carers will likely feel stress which might lead to burn out. It is not easy to care for autistic clients. They need to constantly consider safety precautions and always help them with various tasks. It will require much patience from carers. However, they could feel frustrated especially during days when clients exhibit challenging behaviors.

It will also be a struggle for them to understand what the client needs because most autistic clients have speech impairments. So, the carers should be sensitive to the needs of the client because they may not have the ability to voice these out.

3. 2. B The progression/development of the signs and symptoms (conditions/disease pathway) from the specific group chosen.

ASD is a developmental disorder which directly affects a child's communication skills, social skills and behavior. The reason for this disease is still unknown but studies show that it can be caused by several factors. Among these factors may be developmental factors and genetic factors.

Children with ASD think and behave differently in comparison to other children. They view the world differently. They find it difficult to speak and understand others when they are spoken to. Additionally it is problematic for them expressing themselves through proper body language- they can frequently be misunderstood. They have got poor social skills which causes isolation and withdrawal from other folks. Children with ASD also have difficulty thinking and behaving flexibly. They may engage in unusual behavior and sometimes may do things repetitive things. Furthermore, they also experience various developmental delays.

3. 3. B

- Within your own words discuss how the impairment impacts on the diverse dynamics of the family/whanau

ASD affects the family member's dynamics in several ways. It really is clear that having a child with ASD in the family is challenging. They could have to adapt family activities to match the needs of your client. The family may also face social isolation because other folks may not understand what it is like to manage a child with ASD. Also, since children with ASD tend to be thought to be different, the family may also experience judgment from other people and this may have an enormous impact to their emotional well-being.

Family members also face financial problems because so much is required to look after a child with ASD. Studies also show that parents who've kids affected with ASD are in a larger risk for mental and physical health problems compared to other parents. Furthermore, with each one of these difficulties, members of the family are placed under high degrees of stress, which might be the key reason why their health is often affected.

- How the average person, family/whanau and carers interact and respond to evolving stressors

a. Individual

The client may exhibit more difficult behaviors such as flapping and rocking; or something more aggressive such as throwing things or biting. They may also throw tantrums more regularly so that it is harder for folks who handle them. The client may also experience high degrees of anxiety and or depression due to their current situation; because they could believe that they aren't being understood by people around them.

b. Family/whanau

Family members will experience physical exhaustion. They'll be stressed out and this can lead to burnout. They might not exactly be willing to venture out and interact in social activities because their time is eaten up by firmly taking care of the client. Because they'll be socially isolated, this might lead to depression. Furthermore, due to the high levels of pressure, they could seek the assistance of other relatives to support them in looking after the client.

c. Carers

The growing degrees of stress will greatly affect carers. They are the ones who will interact with the client most of enough time. They have to ensure they always implement enough safety precautions. Their stress may lead to burnout if they're continuously subjected to challenging behavior. Because of this, they may be frustrated and appearance to be irritable at the job. They could also seek the help of other colleagues to assist them.

- The way in which the Code of Rights is put on the precise group of folks selected

a. Right to be treated with respect- Clients should always be treated with respect despite how different they may seem. Clients with ASD are often hard to understand without adequate understanding of the disease but even then, they should be viewed as fellow human beings who have the right to be respected as many people are. They shouldn't be laughed at and their personal needs should be given importance. When doing cares, privacy should be provided all the time.

b. Rights to freedom from discrimination, coercion, harassment and exploitation- Children with ASD may face discrimination from others which shouldn't be the situation. They shouldn't be regarded as of lower standards. They deserve to be treated as every person will be treated. They also needs to not be talked into doing things which they do not agree with. Furthermore, they have got the to be protected from any form of harassment and exploitation; especially those of the young age, because they cannot perceive if a person is taking advantage of them.

c. Right to effective communication- Clients with ASD may be hard to communicate with but they have the right to be communicated to in an efficient manner. Thus, it is the carers task to make certain that the communication difficulties of the client is assessed and appropriate strategies is employed when interacting with them. This means that their needs and concerns are taken cared of. The carer must make sure they talk evidently to the client. They need to be patient and repeat sentences for the coffee lover if the client hasn't understood what has been said.

d. To support- The customers have the right to have support. This can be family or friends or other people who care for them. They should be given the opportunity to connect to people who they trust. This may lessen their frustrations and episodes of aggression. Family must be informed of the value of their occurrence and support to the clients. Regular visits should be encouraged.

e. Rights according of teaching and research- If a client is to be used for a certain study or research, it's important that they consent to it- or that a relative consents to it. It is also important to take care of them with respect when talking about their condition. Even if they are to be utilized as subjects, it is their to keep their identity if indeed they wish to do so. Normally, this is more ideal.

-The needs (support and other) that you've identified for the precise group of men and women selected.

People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a number of different needs. A few of which are the following
  • Speech and language therapist- to help your client enhance their speech
  • They should be encouraged to activate in behavior modification programs to help develop positive behavior.
  • Medication management- carers/family members should ensure that their medications are taken on time.
  • They should be cared for in a safe environment. Support people must work at eliminating possible hazards to your client.
  • They must have regular check ups with their physician to determine the disease progress.
  • Support must be given with regards to various activities of everyday living.
  • Clients should also be encouraged to take part in appropriate activities which will help develop their social skills.

3. 4. B

References
  • Ministry of Health; 2014; Autism Spectrum Disorder; retrieved from: https://www. health. govt. nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/disabilities/autism-spectrum-disorder
  • kidshealth. org. nz; 2005-2014; Autism Spectrum Disorder; retrieved from: http://www. kidshealth. org. nz/autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
  • Autism New Zealand; 2014; About Autism; retrieved from: http://www. autismnz. org. nz/about_autism
  • National Institute of Mental Health; 2014; What's Autism Spectrum Disorder?; retrieved from: http://www. nimh. nih. gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index. shtml

Nur Anne Piccio; SN:14160101; Ageing and Disability Task3Page 1

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