Effect Of Rest Behaviors On Academic Performance Nursing Essay

A mix sectional study was conducted on medical students at Dow Medical College and Mechanical Anatomist college student at NED University of Science and Technology. Questionnaires with an attached consent form were arbitrarily distributed among the list of students. Sleep habit was assessed using the essential Nordic Sleeping Questionnaire, while academic performance was assessed by the things' personal reported GPA/ratio of the previous university or college exam, or by an individual assessment rated over a 7 point range ranging from inadequate to excellent. A customized sleep survey was emailed to each eligible participant.

Results: A complete of 1160 forms were distributed, which 930 valid forms were received- a reply rate of 80. 2%. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 15. 0 software. Students of both establishments reported similar, poor rest patterns. The three significant areas of sleeping, i. e. extreme sleepiness during the daytime, the duration of sleep at night, and the grade of rest were correlated to the educational performance of the subject matter. Each one of the previously listed factors were statistically examined in relation to academics performance, and each garnered an insignificant status (p<0. 05).

Conclusion: A comparison between selected aspects of sleep and academic performance uncovered no significant association between your two.


Sleep habit is a term that explains the qualitative and quantitative areas of rest and their associated repercussions in individuals. It is common knowledge that undergraduate programs, especially of Medication and Engineering demand long and tedious hours of and study and useful work by students. This often brings about students growing poor sleeping practices in attempts to provide their academics their scheduled commitment. During exams and tests specifically, many students take all-nighters to do some last second revision and often survive on very few hours of sleep per day, specifically on the night time prior to the exam. All students wish to pass their tests with good grades. But students are generally unaware of how far such sleeping habits will really help them. Therefore, personalized sleep information were sent to them via email adapted from the "Sleep problems screening process survey". 4

Among studies carried out worldwide on the association of sleeping and academics performance, only three studies were found to have been conducted on undergraduate students, two of which were conducted on medical students1, 2. A report on medical students, entitled, 'Daytime sleepiness and educational performance in medical students'1 desired to correlate sleepiness assessed using the Epworth sleepiness range with marks obtained in examinations at the end of that college period. The analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between academics performance and excessive daytime somnolence, but didn't relate educational performance to other aspects of sleep patterns such as quality of sleep, and sleep timings. The other review, titled 'The sleep patterns, personality and academic performance of medical students'2 demonstrated a significant connection between sleep timings and quality, and academic performance

The need for our study lies in that only a single research newspaper correlating rest with academic performance in undergraduate students could be retrieved from a Pakistani medical journal3. Hence, it appears that there's a dearth of information regarding this matter specifically in the framework of Pakistani establishments.

The objective of this study was to investigate the interplay between sleeping behavior and academic performance in undergraduate students of determined institutions in Karachi, to be able to ascertain the specific sleeping habits that are associated with varying degrees of academics performance, and therefore aid undergraduate students in planning their daily schedules in a manner that will accommodate a healthy sleeping routine, and can at the same time ensure highflying grades in their examinations.


A cross sectional study was conducted on MBBS students at Dow Medical College and Mechanical Executive students at NED School of Engineering and Technology. The sample sizes for both establishments, determined at a self-confidence level of 95%, and a confidence interval of 6 are the following

DMC: population enrolled in one batch = 306 (approx. ); sample size=143 per batch (x5), i. e. 715

NED: population enrolled in one batch = 187 (approx. ); test size=

110 per batch (x4), i. e. 440

Questionnaires were arbitrarily distributed to students in their classes, who were not selectively chosen from any particular list, and questionnaires were accumulated when filled up. The sampling continued to be purposive by handing out questionnaires to every second university student entering the lecture hall. A consent form was mounted on each questionnaire, needing written consent from the participants. The form also provided an launch to the analysis, ensured members of the confidentiality of the info they offer, and offered students the incentives of: 1. being entitled to a free entry in a lucky draw to win a Rs. 1, 000 voucher to get a book(s) of their choice from a bookstore, and 2. being given a personalized report on the sleep habit, and expert advice on how to improve it in order to boost academics performance, free of charge via email. This offered to inspire students to take part in the research, and ensured that those who chose not to participate were not skewed toward a specific category.

The personalized sleep reports were adapted from the 'Sleep disorders screening review'4, and were approved by a Psychiatrist. Professional advice for improving rest was adapted from articles on the 'Healthy Rest' INTERNET SITE, a creation of WGBH Educational Base and the Harvard Medical College Division of Rest Medication6.

Sleep tendencies was assessed because of its qualitative and quantitative aspects at 2 self-employed times: during regular school times, and during exams/ pre-exam preparatory leave. The Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire7 was used for this purpose. A number of sleep evaluation scales and questionnaires have been developed8, each evaluating particular areas of sleeping, such as sleepiness, sleep problems, quality and timings of rest, during a fixed period. THE ESSENTIAL Nordic Sleep Questionnaire was specifically chosen because it is a thorough questionnaire that analyzes both quantitative and qualitative aspects of sleep tendencies, and also has the added good thing about having a suitable quantity of questions (21), so students could willingly spend the money for time to complete the questionnaire. Academics performance was evaluated through self-reported GPA/ ratio of the last semester/ twelve-monthly exam carried out, and the subjects' personal assessment of their academic stature on a 7-point scale.

The labels and roll numbers of the subjects were not taken up to ensure confidentiality. The study was not restricted to a particular gender, year or generation. Addition criterion was therefore any undergraduate university student of the preferred programs at the companies. Students who did not appear in the previous semester/ annual assessment for just about any reason were, however, excluded from the study. Forms where the respondents did not survey their GPA and didn't respond to the question on educational stature based on personal assessment, weren't considered for data evaluation. Furthermore, forms in which reactions to the sleep behavior section of the questionnaire were incomprehensible were also not considered. Data was moved into on SPSS version 15, and examined under the supervision of your statistician.

The research has been documented at the study Division of Dow School of Health Sciences, (subscription number SR 71) and approved by IRB. Established permission for reproducing the Basic Nordic Sleeping Questionnaire for data collection in addition has been received from the international publisher, Wiley-Blackwell.


Table 1 presents the number of questionnaire forms that were allocated to each course, the amount of valid filled forms that were received, and the response rates for each and every class.

It should be noted that the questionnaires were distributed once to students of every school of DMC and NED, formulated with questions regarding rest behavior during normal college or university times and during exams/pre exam preparatory leave. By the end, students were necessary to answer a personal assessment with their academic performance and present their latest GPA.

The actual response rates were just a little higher, as 33 forms that were incorrectly filled were disregarded for data analysis. Thus, 963 students participated in the study, of which the replies of 930 were considered valid for data examination. Of all the (valid) respondents, 61. 6% were females, 35. 3% were males, and 3. 1% did not condition their gender.

Table 2 reveals the mode responses of the questions in the questionnaire. As is seen from the table, the mode reactions to most questions were the same in both establishments. Well known exceptions are the following. Most DMC students reported that during regular college days, they sensed excessively sleepy each day immediately after awakening and/or during daytime, never, or significantly less than one time per month. On the contrary, most NED students reported being excessively sleepy after awakening on 1-2 times per week. The same response was detected, daily or daily during daytime. Furthermore, some DMC students reported taking sleep naps daily or almost daily, most NED students take a nap never or less than one time per month.

The mean time respondents stay awake during intercourse before going to sleep is almost the same in both institutions, a cumulative average of 22. 1 minutes during regular college or university days and nights, and 5. 5 minutes during examinations/ pre exam preparatory leave. The sleeping and awakening times during the night also do not present an appreciable difference in both institutions. It really is, however, noteworthy that most students in both companies sleeping at or after midnight, and generally wake up early each day.

The mean sleeping nap period is 1. 83 hours during regular college days, and marginally less during examinations/ pre exam preparatory leave (1. 46).

Most respondents didn't report issues with their sleep. Of those that did, the issues were generally related to bad dreams, difficulty in falling asleep and interrupted sleep.

The vast majority of students did not survey using sleeping pills. 26 students reported with them during regular college or university days and nights and 43 during exam/ pre exam preparatory leave indicating the increased prevalence of sleep problems throughout that time.

Possible correlations between educational performance and three aspects of sleep patterns during tests/ pre exam preparatory leave were analyzed

quality of rest,

excessive sleepiness during daytime,

duration of rest per nighttime.

1st calendar year NED students hadn't appeared in any gross annual exam, so their personal diagnosis was used as an indication of their academic performance. Several NED students of the other years had reported a GPA, even though these are officially given percentages by their establishment. For such students, the GPAs were changed into percentages by using a standard conversion graph. However, since it cannot be established what solution the students had used to convert their percentages, to minimize errors, their educational performance based on personal evaluation was regarded as a far more reliable sign. Students were necessary to report personal examination over a 7-point scale ranging from inadequate to excellent. A reply of satisfactory/ average or better was regarded as academic performance equal to or above class average. For DMC students, mean class GPAs, as enlisted in Table 1, were considered.

The results are shown in the body.

The first club displays the percentage of students who slept well and scored equal to or above their category average (64. 58%), and the second bar symbolizes the percentage that didn't rest well and have scored add up to or above their class average (64. 05%). These results illustrate that there is no statistically significant relationship between quality of sleep and educational performance (p<0. 05).

The 3rd bar exhibits the no. of students who, never or less than one time per month, felt exceedingly sleepy, and obtained add up to or above class average (67. 77%). The next bar presents the no. of students who sometimes thought exceedingly sleepy during daytime, but nonetheless scored add up to or above class average (62. 7%).

Similarly, the 5th and 6th bars signify students who rest more and significantly less than the mean no. of time at night, respectively and scored equal to or above class average (67. 64 and 60. 73, respectively). The reports suggest that there is no significant relation between daytime sleepiness or length of sleep during the night, and academic performance (p<0. 05).


Sleep is a naturally recurring state seen as a reduced or missing awareness, relatively suspended sensory activity, and inactivity of almost all voluntary muscles. Sleep behavior is a term that identifies the qualitative and quantitative areas of sleep and their associated repercussions in individuals.

In this modern period where workload and stress are increasing day by day, it is quite common to find university students endeavoring to juggle their educational studies in a 24 hour timeline. It is, therefore typical for students to remain up later during normal days and nights as well as during exam times to hide their coursework. This in turn can have implications on the quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness and other areas of sleep patterns.

As the results show, most of the replies received were the same for students in both establishments, implying a eye-catching similarity in their sleeping conducts. Most students from both companies mentioned that their quality of sleep was well, without being awakened at night never or significantly less than once per month. This means that that even though students are getting less time of sleep, the grade of rest is strong enough to help have them during the day. As established fact, most medical and executive students tend to have a busy schedule the complete day. However, they could rest peacefully at night. The grade of sleep considerably outweighs the number.

Furthermore, students from both corporations presented with approximately the same time of sleep every night; having slept at nighttime and awakened during weekdays at 6 -7 AM, giving a 6-7 hours sleep. Research presents with typically 7-9 time of rest sufficient to help the average person get through with the next day. [9]

However, some sleeping behaviours were found to be different among students of the 2 2 institutions. First of all, DMC students reported a greater frequency of rest naps. Because students from both corporations reported almost the same length of time of sleep during the night, this may be a sign that medical students face more tedious hours of review and workload, as they have to divide their college timings in lectures, lab work and thorough clinical postings. Therefore, DMC students required afternoon naps more regularly to restore their energy as to continue their studies and daily activities at night.

Secondly, there is a minority of students that reported problems with their sleeping, such as bad dreams, difficulty in drifting off to sleep and interrupted sleep. It is unclear whether the prevalence of the problems is the same as in the general student inhabitants in the country or not, since studies relating to this could not be retrieved. Nevertheless, sleep problems in the minority of students can be related to nervousness associated with increasing workload and/ or attaining and retaining their required marks. This justification may be further corroborated by the finding of increased use of sleeping pills during preparatory leave or exams where stress levels escalate. [10]

At DMC, it was discovered that 3rd 12 months students reported the highest mean GPA in comparison to those of other batches. Similarly, additionally it is valued that in NED, possessed a higher mean ratio than that of 2nd and 3rd years. (Word: 1st 12 months students had not appeared within an gross annual exam so a mean percentage cannot be computed).

Worldwide studies have been carried out on the association of sleep and educational performance, 2 of which 1, 2 were conducted on undergraduate medical students. The first research entitled "Daytime sleepiness and academics performance in medical students" 1 correlated sleepiness assessed using the Epworth sleepiness size with levels obtained in tests at the end of the school period. Although this review showed a poor correlation between educational performance and unnecessary daytime somnolence, it performed verify that the academic performance of these students did get damaged by unnecessary daytime somnolence. (Somnolence is thought as the inability to maintain an adequate level of wakefulness, or as an high amount of daytime sleepiness)

The second study, entitled "The sleep practices, personality and academic performance of medical students" 2 exhibited a significant relationship between sleep timings and quality, and academic performance. It illustrated that those students who increased early and went to bed early were able to achieve greater than those students who slept and increased quite late. In addition, this research also discovered that the educational performance had not been related to the long-term variations in the amount of sleep; a discovering that also operates parallel with our findings.


The questionnaires required subject matter to answer questions regarding their sleep behavior during regular school times, and during tests/ pre-exam preparatory leave. Topics might have been unable to exactly recall the quantity of quality of sleeping they have and may have given an estimation that may range from somewhat inaccurate to misleading. Furthermore, topics may have been unwilling to provide accurate home elevators certain personal questions, including the problems they have with their sleeping, and the factors that influenced their GPAs/ percentages, even though their names or roll amounts were not considered, and they were reassured of the confidentiality of the information they provide. Moreover, in order to judge academic performance, the subject matter' personal reported GPA needed to be relied upon, as it had not been possible to send such a large number of forms to the Evaluation Department to verify. Sample size might possibly not have been a restriction due to a considerably large sample size (was used (1150), corresponding to a self confidence limit of 95%, and a self-assurance interval of 6. For NED students, personal analysis needed to be considered a reliable indicator of academic performance because of the limitation discussed in the section on results.


A evaluation of the rest behaviors of the students of two different corporations while considering their academic performance exposed that both factors didn't relate to the other person in any way studied. With this study, three areas of sleep behavior were considered to be significant: whether the subject believed sleepy during the daytime, the duration of sleep at night and the quality of sleep. Academic shows were then in comparison to these three factors. The favorite belief that students follow a wholesome sleeping pattern in order to accomplish better levels could thus not be turned out. In addition, an extremely small ratio of respondents reported some issues with their sleep including bad dreams, difficulty in falling asleep or intermittent sleep. Nevertheless, the study still concludes that the students of both institutions have unhealthy sleeping patterns that could affect other areas of their lives besides academics achievements.


We are pleased to Dr. Raza-ur-Rehman, Associate Professor, Division of Psychiatry, Civil Hospital, Karachi, for supervising the analysis. Further, we have been thankful to Dr. Imran Chaudhry, School of Manchester, U. K, for supporting us with the look of the study and for proofreading the project's proposal. Jaweria Nawed, Mechanical Engineering student, NED, assisted us in data collection at NED.

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