Nursing Research Methods: Article Critique Essay

Title: Factors related to academic success among medical students: A descriptive correlational research study

  • Samina Iqbal Kanji

The article under critique is a quantitative research study entitled as "Factors related to academic success among medical students: A descriptive correlational study"; released in the entire year 2013. I will be critiquing this post based on the provided guideline. Subject of the analysis under concern is unambiguous, thus acquiring the population and phenomenon of interest. Additionally, the abstract is organised and is providing information under distinct headings.

The problem:

The described problem is of great importance to nursing, because increased medical lack is posing a danger to the health industry in terms of competency and quality of health care by the nursing personnel. The researcher has critically analyzed the importance in conditions of the relationship between the educational success and its effects on the replacement of existing medical staff The purpose of the research has been explained and the study will accomplish its purpose by providing an insight to the medical education system to bring changes in curricula for improved upon results. As prior knowledge about the variables was already mentioned with other students therefore to precede the amount of inquiry a quantitative methodology is utilized as the reason is to know about the correlations. There was no operational classification pointed out explicitly about the research variables; however their correlation with academic success has been given in other contexts. There was no explicit problem statement within the benefits; however, linkages were made following a broad to narrow approach. Thus, offer an insight in to the nursing practice. The researcher has acknowledged the constraints of the study in terms of sample bias, low generalizability and various results at times due to the spiritual component. There have been no explicit assumptions identified; however one can infer from the introduction that giving an answer to the factors impacting academics success can in long haul help in combat the effects of nursing scarcity.

Review of the literature:

The review provided in the study was comprehensive, reasonable and critically analyzed, hence provided sequential information ranging from the entrance of the nursing students, factors important for their academic success, organizations between different facets and academic success and lastly the itch of the study i-e correlation of factors with academics success of nursing students. The partnership of the books review to the research purpose is unambiguously apparent by using a funnel approach. Furthermore, the majority of the personal references were taken from the entire year 1982-2012. Those with old references were explicitly backed by their presence in the latest literature. The review consists of almost all of the theoretical work, though if empirical support might have made this review stronger. Besides, the vast majority of the researches were from primary resources and were paraphrased sufficiently. The information provided in the review clearly gives a method for conducting a new research; additionally, researcher in addition has acknowledged this gap by the end of the literature review i-e there's a gap of researches done for the improvement of educational success of medical students.

Protection of real human rights:

The proposed review has been designed to lessen the effects of issues occurring as a result of nursing shortage i-e lowered quality of care, decreased amount of skilled nurses, and increased rates of medical student's turnover. Besides, the results of this study will not only affect the complete health care system, but it'll have an effect on the professional development and educational success of specific nursing student. The data of voluntary up to date consent has been talked about explicitly that was sent to participants via electric medium. There is no evidence present explicitly for coercion. As the sampling was done conveniently, therefore, participants were not invited during cycles of high stress; rather these were asked to fill up the research questioners in their own time. There was no way to recognize about the identities of study individuals as their data was incorporated anonymously on review monkey software and also provided with numerical rules. . There is an explicit proof study review by Institutional Review Plank (IRB).

Theoretical/conceptual Framework:

The researcher has not acknowledged the utilization of any theoretical / conceptual platform. According to Burns and Grove (2010), descriptive studies do not require any theoretical platform as the reason is still to explore and summarize trend. The researcher may have conceptualized by looking the consequences of different variable on the educational success. Relating to Burns and Grove (2010), sometimes elementary ideas about the parameters make the conceptual frameworks and can be found at the start of the study but aren't acknowledge by the researcher and are referenced as implicit frameworks. The study problem moves from the backdrop knowledge. Concepts such as nursing shortage, scholar attrition, and academic success are quickly described.


The researcher has not stated hypothesis explicitly. However, there lack is justified in Polit and Beck (2012) that the purpose of descriptive correlational design is to spell it out the type and connection between different factors and hypothesis technology; rather than concluding about casualty. However, on the other palm, Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan (2007) suggest that correlational designs approaches the partnership either via hypothesis trials of responding to research question. But, researcher has not explicitly pointed out about his analysis research question also that could be considered a negative critique. Academic success in this study serves as the centered variable, however psychological intelligence; subconscious empowerment; resilience; and religious wellbeing performs the part of impartial variables respectively. Since it as a non-experimental design, therefore predictions can't be made about the treatment or control group.


The researcher needs to generalize the analysis findings to all the medical students, and has detailed it well. The mark population is suitable based on the research problem and source limitation, as it would have been very difficult to provide all medical students remember the cost constraints, human, and material resources. The researcher has clearly defined the choice process that is convenient sampling and snowballing via professors of the colleges. The sampling method used fits perfectly with the amount of inquiry and research design. This point was supported by Polit and Beck (2012) that in descriptive correlational studies; the purpose is to explore the initial relationships between variables without knowing about the conclusions therefore, self-selection or convenient sampling methods are use. Additionally, as the researcher is unaware about the existence of relationship in medical students therefore choosing this sampling strategy would be cost effective. You can find no potential sampling biases explicitly described in the analysis. However, according to Rebecca (2010) one of the limitation of convenient sampling is selection bias itself, therefore potential biases might have been existed. The researcher has used electricity analysis to analyze sample size. However, regarding to Rebecca (2010), the appropriate standard for determining power examination is alpha 0. 05, modest effect size, and power of 0. 80. The researcher has used really small power therefore; sample is not sufficiently large to generalize it to the whole people. The generalizations can be produced cautiously to the nursing students. There were no control teams present, however, exclusion conditions is used to ensure a representative sample. There is absolutely no evidence of lessening sampling error; yet if large sample size was used then it could have been minimized.

Research Design:

The design used because of this research is a non-experimental design called as "descriptive correlational study". This design comes under the group of level II studies and matching to Rebecca (2010), correlational studies are used when the researcher desires to answer about the relationship between the parameters whose nature has been detailed either by previous researches or books synthesis. After going right through this article and other literatures, researcher has picked an appropriate review design. One could say that researchers have already been done on students in addressing the relationship of this changing as the researcher acknowledged its absence in medical students so that it was a wise decision because stressors could vary for students with different programs. There is no discussion about the consequences of extraneous parameters and their control, however he has reviewed the use of regression to analyses unique predictors however he had not been successful with the regression models. The info provided in this study can let the study replication in other medical universities. Furthermore, as this is a religious university, therefore replicating the research in non-religious universities could give better understanding about the relationship between religious wellbeing and educational success.

Data Collection:

The data collection musical instruments utilized by the researcher were Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), Spreitzer Psychological Empowerment Size, Wagnild and Young Resilience Size, the Spiritual Well-Being Size (SWBS), and the background information of the individuals. There have been selection reason explained, they are discussed sufficiently. The study device by their characteristics confirmed congruency with the study question. . The researcher has explained the use of different types of validity (face, content, discriminant, incremental, convergent) for every of the tools where possible. Furthermore, to guarantee the stability, the researcher has run dependability coefficients. According to Polit and Beck (2012), ensuring the validity and trustworthiness of an instrument is important for the quality and results reliability of the study results. The results of the checks of validity and trustworthiness are enough for their usage because they are examined for both showing more powerful correlations separately. Since the reliabilities of the tools were stronger ranging from 0. 85 to 0. 91 respectively and they were valid; therefore these were appropriate to for use with the analysis sample keeping in mind the four factors to be analyzed via them.

Quantitative Evaluation:

The researcher has used descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, and percentages) and Pearson's correlation using the PASW reports 18 to investigate the data. Regarding to Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan (2007), descriptive studies results are analyzed via descriptive figures. Moreover, matching to Polit and Beck (2012), relationship between two factors is described through correlation types of procedures mainly through relationship coefficient. Therefore, the analysis methods match both the level of inquiry a research design. The amount of way of measuring in this study for all parameters is quantitative proportion in nature. Matching to Polit and Beck (2012), Pearson's correlation coefficient are used when the changing under study either belong to interval or ratio level of dimension. The link between the data analysis and studies has been made clear unambiguously by the researcher. In addition, the researcher has used Pearson correlation(r) and p value showing the amount of marriage and statistical research for each variable, and identified them very evidently altogether showing the relationship logically. At times researcher has truly gone beyond the info to interpret the result, for example in measuring emotional cleverness; the researcher has examined the dissimilarities between graduate and undergraduate students by the sort of stressors. The statistical result is perfectly presented in the text but numerical presentation might have been better in the form of demonstrating all results and statistics altogether. The provided results by correlation coefficient and p value are giving enough facts about the correctness of the results. There were no graphical displays shown by the researcher, however corresponding to Polit and Beck (2012), correlation interactions can be shown through scatter plots.

Conclusions and advice:

The results of the info examination were unambiguously discussed in conditions of the research purpose for undergraduate and graduate students separately. Through this the audience can make decisions about the correlation between different factors affecting educational success easily. The generalization of these conclusions can be questionable due to small test size and convenient character of the look, thus posing a menace to exterior validity. The results of the conclusions can indirectly influence our patients consequently factors may lead to student's retention in doing so welcoming more trained nurses to provide proficient health care to the patients. A couple of no risk identified by the study results; however, such results could offer an understanding to the nursing educators in renewing the curriculum to bring positive long-term results. Within the talk section; the researcher has given advice in the light of literature and study findings for improving coaching strategies. In addition, future researches for academics planning in addition has been proposed, however no such conversation has been made about medical practice. Though the study needs careful generalizations in conditions of small sample size, still can provide information for replication, experimental studies for future insurance policy making


American Psychological Connection. (2010). Publication manual of the American subconscious association (6th ed. ). Washington, DC: North american Psychological Association

Burns, N. , & Grove, S. K. (2010). Understanding medical research: Building an evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Coughlan, M. , Cronin, P. , & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research.

Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663

Keele, R. (2010). Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice. Jones & Bartlett Web publishers.

Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: Generating and evaluating evidence for

nursing practice (9th ed. ). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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