Acquisition of knowledge - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

8.4. Knowledge acquisition

The last decades of the XX century. the world scientific community has spent on knowing the secrets of the brain. During this time, 90-95% of what humanity knows about its functioning today was discovered. Applying increasingly sophisticated research techniques, scientists increasingly penetrate the secrets of the brain, study its functioning under various conditions. Today they are able to say in which part of the brain are located areas responsible for certain types of intellectual activity. Much has been clarified regarding brain training. It can be argued that we have not yet learned how to use it in full force, but even by a quarter.

Recall, the brain is built of hundreds of billions of neurons, creating a complex network of connections. Already at birth, the child has all the neurons. They are the same as in the brain of an adult. There are no links between them. They are formed by upbringing. Formed throughout life. At a young age, while neurons are malleable and active, the formation of connections is quick and successful. Already at the age of six, the density of the network of connections is quite high. In students, the network density is almost doubled. Each new information creates a new connection channel between the neurons. Channels that are not used for a long time are overgrown. Links that do not work, disappear, are forgotten.

The practical conclusion is this: one who wants to have a trained, capable brain to learn, must learn all his life. The brain must constantly be in an active, trained state. The number of connections must constantly grow. If the brain does not work, it gradually atrophies, becomes sluggish, inactive, like any other organ.

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We know that the brain consists of the left and right hemispheres, i.e. in fact, we have not one but two brains. Hemispheres are connected by a corpus callosum for communication and interaction. Between the left and right hemispheres there is a continuous dialogue. This is the process of thinking. The information received by one of the hemispheres is immediately transferred to another for evaluation and comparison. There is a continuous evaluation of information obtained by one hemisphere, the criteria of the other hemisphere. We know that each hemisphere fulfills its function. Everyone is responsible for a different vision and understanding of the world around him. The left analyzes the surrounding world from the side of logic, rationality. The right one gives an emotional, sensual, intuitive assessment. To assess the world (situation) was correct and complete, you need to constantly check the logic of feelings, and feelings - logic.

The corpus callosum as a connection channel between the hemispheres consists of a huge number of special cells. It is important for us that there are also connections between its cells, the number of which increases during the training process, so the trained person has an increased ability of complex logical-emotional and emotional-logical assessment of the surrounding world. He not only thinks and feels the thinner, but has a developed instinct, intuition, which is a consequence of the established work of the hemispheres.

Studies consistently confirm that the overall intellectual ability is higher in people who have learned to use both hemispheres. This conclusion is extremely important for learning. It is on the proportional load of both hemispheres, academic and emotional, that we need to develop new teaching technologies, or more precisely, technologies for managing the balanced operation of the brain hemispheres.

Our programs of school and university education operate mainly the left hemisphere, responsible for analysis and logic. He is mercilessly loaded while studying mathematics, physics, and natural sciences. Opportunities and reserves of the right hemisphere are used little. In fact, it rests at a time when it should work intensively. Analyzing the situation, the well-known American educators A. and B. Bucena, authors of well-known books on pedagogy in the Western world, write: "Focusing only on half the ability of the brain, people behave in fact as semi-annual."

Each teacher knows about the benefits of so-called mnemonic techniques of emotional action that are specifically created to activate the left hemisphere. The simplest rhymed rhymes greatly facilitate the memorization of complex logical concepts. Who does not know the expression that once helped each of us remember the order of colors in the spectrum: "Every hunter wants to know where the pheasant sits" (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue, purple). You write something somewhere - dashes do not forget & quot ;. These tips, thanks to the simultaneous use of logic and rhyme, are easily remembered.

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For productive learning, you need to take care of much more intensive interaction of both hemispheres of the brain. It is necessary to create favorable conditions for this, changing the established patterns of mental activity. By the way, we will solve one more important problem - high-quality joint education of young men and girls. It is known that the male and female brains are arranged in different ways, this issue will be discussed specifically. Young men have a more developed logical hemisphere, girls have an emotional one. In view of this, it is necessary to abandon the obsolete ways of organizing intellectual work of schoolchildren and students.

What can be done now to improve the links between the hemispheres and enhance their interaction? The first task is to unblock the right, mostly underexploited hemisphere. It should be loaded with emotionally colored information. This can be achieved by training the imagination. We will more often create and apply images everything that should be understood, learned and remembered by the learner - from the hypotenuse and the legs to the punctuation marks and the verbal participles. The more abstraction, dryness, logic in the teaching material, the more it is necessary to appeal to the senses, to evoke the emotions of the students. Compare the table of D. Mendeleyev with the ballet hall, in which chemical elements dance. Let the trainees draw them, preserving the main features. Hydrogen will be an easy ballet master jumping up to the ceiling, oxygen - very companion, beating off each partner's partner, heavy tin - sitting in the corner of the hall, and noble helium - dancing solo. This description will be remembered by everyone.

It is known that all people remember well the knowledge that excited them. Our memories connected with the experiences are very strong. There are many ways to emotionally load students. They can discuss on important topics, play roles. Sometimes it is enough, when discussing a problem, pay attention to its importance for civilization, science, one's own career, health, well-being.

The rhymed text is digested easier and faster. Teachers of preschool establishments know this well and use poems and songs for teaching children. The robot of the brain of a six-year-old child and a high school graduate is not much different, that's why you need to use rhymes in school and at university to facilitate memorization of important material. There is already an experience of the presentation of school and university subjects in verse. Mathematics, physics, chemistry sound like poems. However, apparently, we still do not understand much of the work of our brain, because we lose sense of proportion - instead of one hemisphere we load another. It is important that both hemispheres work synchronously.

Good access to the opportunities that are hidden in the right part of the brain is opened by drawing. All kinds of drawings, graphics, including mental and cognitive maps, memory cards, reference notes, which we will talk about here, combine logic with imagination.

Jokes and humor are very important for effective learning. Learned faster and easier to remember the material, if it is associated with a funny story. The timely, witty joke of the teacher almost always guarantees full association.

The effectiveness of training depends on the type and structure of knowledge. There are two types of knowledge: declarative and procedural. Declaratory shows what we know. Procedural means that we are able to do with this knowledge. It is better to memorize procedural knowledge. From the nature of knowledge depends on their memorization. How to make it easier for the brain to remember?

1. The student is interested in, the teacher is interested. It is very difficult to remember knowledge that is not at all interesting. Make them interesting.

2. Concentrate. Both students and teachers. When we listen to a lesson absorbed in our own thoughts, we practically do not register any information. Concentration of attention is the decisive condition of memorization.

3. Use repetitions. This is a technique for keeping information in short-term memory. If you repeat the foreign word several times, you can hope that it will settle in your memory. In this simple, mechanical repetition, the so-called behavioral, facilitates the retention of information for a short time. For long-term memorization, we need to apply the encoding technique, which is that we associate the new message with the already fixed in memory. If you want to remember some date, you can try to connect it with events that we remember well.

4. Conduct a deep analysis (transformation of information), which is stronger than encoding, connects new messages with those that are already in memory. If you analyze the information in detail and understand it well, it will be stored in memory for a long time.

5. Repeat the information even when they are sure that they have understood and know it well. This ensures a strong and long-lasting memorization. In pedagogy, the law of "over-learning" is known. The essence of it is that you need to learn the material even after the first error-free reproduction of the material was received.

6. Use active teaching methods that make understanding possible, excite emotions and sensations, which makes it easier to memorize the material. Metko expressed this opinion about Confucius: "I hear and forget. I see and remember. I do and I understand. "

Based on new results of brain research, teachers are looking for ways to organize his activities that would eliminate the shortcomings of current training and allow using unused brain reserves. We are discovering the ways of more delicate management of mental activity, delicate processing of brain areas with the help of subtle touches where we used to operate with a shovel and sledgehammer. In principle, nothing changes, only our pedagogical actions become more focused, verified, accurate. I would compare literate pedagogical activity with microsurgery, which brings more benefits to the patient due to high targeting of the impacts.

Our goal should be the development of all types of intelligence of students and students. We must help everyone to recognize their leading intellect as early as possible, on the basis of which the accompanying intellects will develop. A lot of developed intellects will always provide a higher overall level of intelligence, which guarantees to a person much better adaptability to the conditions of life.

"A lot of talents, if not intellects, are lost, lavished, because they were not noticed or dropped; people with such talents are the main victims of a limited, narrow approach to the mind, "Gardner argues. - No one needs to prove that our world is full of problems; to have a chance to solve them, we should much better use the types of intelligence that we own. " Today in schools excessive attention is paid to linguistic and logical-mathematical intellect, other types are used insufficiently, so some students are assessed as weak, slow, or those that do not have any abilities. This is a big mistake.

Teachers who would like to rebuild their education on the basis of new ideas about the work of the brain and would like, in particular, to improve the development of all types of intelligence, we should pay attention to some subtleties in managing cognitive activity of students.

1. Axiom: every student is different. Each has its own specific and unique "matrix of intelligence". Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, you need to work with everyone, taking into account its features.

2. We proceed from the fact that all types of intelligence are important and necessary. Consequently, we will not focus only on the development of linguistic and mathematical qualities. Spatial talents, natural, kinesthetic, social and personal in human life are no less than.

3. Each type of intelligence needs and can be developed.

4. The addition of developed intellects will always provide a higher overall level of intellectual development.

5. It is difficult to diagnose the development of each kind of intelligence, but one can not do without it. Apply special tests. Ask the trainees about their talents, talents, preferences. Give them freedom of choice. The student who has received the opportunity to choose, will always show his talents.

6. It is necessary to adapt the methods of learning to the type of intelligence. I'll have to invent special techniques. For example, teaching students with insignificant spatial abilities, it is better to give them three-dimensional models, rather than expect that they will understand the essence, drawing flat figures.

7. Assess must be based on intelligence. Learned with social inclinations is not "stupid" trained with language intelligence. He is different.

8. "And his head helped with his hands," - sang V. Vysotsky. We can not worry about gifted students. The subject of our care will be primarily students who have not yet managed to achieve the interaction of different types of intelligence, in which the intellects "do not help" to each other.

9. Emotional intelligence, which determines 80% of life's success, is nothing more than the union of all types of developed intelligence, therefore, along with the development of intelligence, develop emotions. Exercises in optimism, development of self-confidence, ability to cooperate with others, development of empathy, attention and understanding should be included in each lesson.

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