ACTUAL CONCEPTS AND EDUCATION SYSTEM
As a result of mastering this chapter, the student must:
• an approximate content of the basic concepts of upbringing;
• The content of the concept of personality-oriented education;
• The content of the Concept of Spiritual and Moral Education of United States Schoolchildren;
be able to
• characterize the principles of upbringing, based on different concepts of upbringing;
• Disclose the content of the basic principles of education in the paradigm of personality-oriented education;
• Analyze educational systems;
• skills to assess the implementation of individual principles of education in specific circumstances and situations;
• skills in analyzing one's own ideas about the organization of educational systems.
The most important concept today is the concept of personality-oriented education.
The personal approach in educational activity is the orientation of the teacher on the personality of the pupil as a goal, subject, result and criterion of its effectiveness. This approach is viewed by teachers and psychologists as a methodological setting, which is of fundamental importance. Its meaning is explained by the fact that a pupil is a child, a person is endowed with his own activity, i.e. is also a subject of upbringing.The competent use of the personal approach in upbringing presupposes the teachers' possession of such concepts as personality, subjectivity, subject experience.
The concept of personality is one of the basic concepts of psychology, therefore it has multiple interpretations. The different definitions are given by B.S. Gershunsky, M.S. Kagan, K. K. Platonov and others. According to V. Lednev, in the context of the personal approach in pedagogy, it is expedient to single out the following main aspects of the personality structure:
• functional mechanisms of the psyche, which include mechanisms such as perception of information, thinking, memory, emotions, attention, will, psychomotorics, etc .;
• generalized typological properties of personality (character, temperament, ability);
• Personality experience.
In pedagogical science, the concept "subject experience" is defined as the existing personal experience available; experience of life activity and self-realization, acquired by the child in the course of communication, activity, cognition, observation, decision-making concerning his life, actions, experiences of his successes and failures, self-reflection. In the pedagogical dictionary subject active, knowing, conscious person. The subject can show initiative and independence, accept and implement the decision, assess the consequences of his behavior, self-change and improve himself, determine the outlook for his multi-dimensional life.
In modern conditions, the idea that the child, being a subject of diverse relations with the surrounding reality, is firmly established, is also a subject of versatile activity in the educational process. And from this it follows that the pedagogical influence of the teacher should be considered only as a RELATION (IA Lipchanskaya, LI Malenkova).
In practice, two main strata are obtained spontaneously acquired experience, depending on its sources:
• empirical generalizations of the facts directly observed by the child and the relations of reality, expressed in his independent judgments, patterns, experiences, practical actions, etc. On their basis, it is possible to distinguish externally similar objects prior to working out in the class of their essential features;
• The knowledge that the child derives from any sources, except textbooks, manuals, teacher explanations. Such sources can be popular literature, mass media, judgments of people from the closest surrounding, i.e. sources that are not imposed on the student and which he uses without purposeful, systematic exercise and control by adults.
That is, the experience of the individual (or subject experience) is the level of training in this area of knowledge and the level of general development, culture, as well as habits, the direction of the personality, its qualities. A key role in this is the attention to the meanings and meanings that are generated by the individual, which regulate activities and actions in situations of moral choice.
Subject experience is the experience of life activity and self-realization, acquired by the child independently in the course of communication, activity, cognition, observation, decision-making regarding their lives and deeds. This experience of experiencing their successes and failures, the experience of self-reflection, according to EV Bondarevskaya, one of the authors of the approach. In the child's subject experience, the results of individual awareness of oneself and their actions and experiences are presented, both in the process of organized learning and in the course of spontaneous interaction with the world of people and things. Particular importance is given to the subject experience of life, acquired by the child before school in the conditions of a sociocultural environment, in the process of perception and understanding of the world of people and things. In the personality-oriented approach to upbringing, they are studied, counted and used:
• features of the family, its cultural and educational potential, family values, material environment, intergenerational relations;
• features of the settlement (district, village, city, metropolis);
• features of ethnic groups and confessions dominating the child's environment;
• features and nature of his leisure and free time;
• Serious and insignificant life events that affected the child, etc.
L. S. Vygotsky wrote: "The only educator able to organize new reactions in the body is his own body experience. Only this connection remains for him real, which was given in personal experience ... Therefore, the passivity of the student as an underestimation of his personal experience is the greatest sin from the scientific point of view, because he takes as a basis the false rule that the teacher is everything and the student is everything, nothing. On the contrary, the psychological point of view requires acknowledging that in the educational process the student's personal experience is everything. Education should be organized so that the student is not brought up, and the pupil was brought up himself. "
The personal approach is implemented in a number of pedagogical concepts and theories. This is a person-oriented learning (IS Yakimanskaya), a person-oriented education (EV Bondarevskaya), etc. It is possible to get acquainted with the personality-oriented approach in the works of these authors, as well as VD Shadrikov, V. I. Slobodchikova, V. V. Serikova.
In practice, often teachers mix personal and individual approach, as well as the concepts of personality, individual, individuality. The concepts individual & quot ;, individuality apply when talking about an individual, characterizing his individual characteristics of thinking, temperament, the style of educational or professional activity. When it is mainly about relations with people, with society, the concept of "personality" is used, focusing on its activity, sense-making, orientation, the presence of the "I-image" etc. Obviously, the individual approach is realized in pedagogy, mainly through the consideration of interests, the pace of mastering the school material by the schoolchild, the pupil's preferences in choosing tasks, and so on. The personal approach requires special forms of communication and a special selection of the content of communication (dialogue, polylogue, semantic filling of tasks, etc.).
The personal-oriented approach in education means building on personal qualities. Person-centered upbringing means this way of organizing the educational process, when the opportunities, abilities and subject experience of pupils are fully taken into account and the necessary conditions for their development are created.
The goal of personality-oriented education - creating conditions for the development of the subjectivity of the child.
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