Anthropological Principle in Social Cognition - Psychology and Pedagogy

Anthropological principle in social cognition

Many thinkers throughout different epochs showed interest not in God, not in nature, not in man, but in society (society). They were interested in specific questions: what is society? how is it born? why did humanity create such a phenomenon? how does society relate to nature? What are the mechanisms that make society develop? how will society in the long term? All this caused a huge interest in pedagogy and its psychological aspects.

To understand how to build an education, people accumulated a huge amount of material. At the same time, specific approaches to pedagogy developed. Of course, historians made a significant contribution to the development of knowledge about education. In the Ancient East, elements of historical science developed primarily in monumental form - images, rock inscriptions and reliefs, lists of lords, temple chronicles. The historical memory of the Chinese was fixed in painting, in the use of "noble colors", in the poetization of wood, stone and water. Greek historians collected and summarized historical facts on the basis of simple records about what they saw or received messages. The initial step in describing the history of society among the Greeks was the epic of Homer, in whose poems the integral picture of the early Greek epoch in poetic images is reflected, as well as myths and legends in which certain interpretations of historical events were given.

About what education, thought and philosophers. Such thinkers who study society are called social philosophers. They reflect on the problems of social life, collective human activity. Social philosophers believe that if you unravel such a phenomenon as society, you can understand other problems, for example, why nature is eternal, what is culture, why a person is endowed with consciousness.

In the XX century. a special science was born - sociology. She studies the forms of people's living together and changes in these forms. Representatives of this science showed a keen interest in the general and specific patterns of social development. Unlike philosophers who relied on the forces of their own minds and fantasies and tried to guess more quickly, to grasp the general picture of the emergence and formation of society through intuition and the mind, sociologists tried to study in more detail specific collectives and social organizations. Of course, they relied on the possibilities of intelligence. However, sociology in its conclusions is based on facts, observations, real generalizations.

Interest in society manifested not only philosophers and sociologists. I. Kant wrote that psychology, that is, the science of the laws of development and functioning of the psyche, will never become a science. How can we understand the intimate world of man, if our inner experiences are unique? In the depths of the psyche to penetrate is not given, but if this happens, psychology will be completely uninteresting. These forecasts were inaccurate. In the XX century. psychology is finally established as a scientific discipline. In addition, it was immensely interesting. Some researchers believe that this century will be a century of psychology. Today it is obvious that one should not study society and not take into account the most important discoveries of modern psychology, which offers its own methods of comprehending historical life. Indeed, is it possible to understand, for example, the ancient culture, without thinking about what the ancient Greeks felt and how the world treated the world?

In the last century, there was another science that markedly enriched knowledge about society. This is culturology - the science of the multiplicity of cultures, their uniqueness and dissimilarity and the laws of the cultural and historical process.

Culturology (from Latin cultura - cultivation and Greek logos - teaching) - humanitarian discipline, studying culture as an integral system, the diversity of cultures, their interaction, the types of cultural creativity, the structure and functions of culture, the laws of the development of social life and expression in the culture of human existence.

People have previously suspected that Europeans, for example, live differently than Asians or Africans. But humanity was still divided. Few people knew about what other cultures were interesting. And then intensified study of different cultures began. It was found that the types of society in specific cultures often differ from each other. European society is different, for example, from Chinese, because each culture is unique. So culturology has significantly deepened our understanding of society, about the education systems that are adopted in these societies.

This textbook uses the anthropological principle. This means that the presentation of the material does not begin with general issues of pedagogy and education, but with a person. Before moving on to society, culture, education, it is necessary to bring at least the basic information that has developed as a result of philosophical comprehension of man. After all, it is he who possesses something, fights for something, creates some social forms, aspires to the future.

Each of us learns culture, lives in the family, participates in social processes, contributes to the development of history. About society, you can give an idea, talking about a person.

Without society there is no man. It is man who created society, culture. But this should not be understood in a simplistic way, in the sense that a particular person or even a multitude of people created a certain union or community. Yes, without society there is no man. But in the same Mers rightly say that without man there would be no society. In the process of people's life together, certain social ties have formed, which were not always realized by people and therefore were objective, that is, no longer dependent on the consciousness of people, character. Certain regularities of social life were born. That's why when social scientists talk about a person and about society, they imply the indissoluble unity and interdependence of these two factors - society and man.

Psychological improvement is a condition for professional and personal growth of a specialist.

Education of character is a complicated matter. But is it possible without knowledge of philosophical anthropology, psychology. The latter is often the foundation for pedagogy. The very relationship between psychology and pedagogy, therefore, varies significantly. The mutual importance, connection and support of both sciences is growing. A new look at the psyche - and in recent decades a lot of unexpected things have appeared in this respect - it also imposes a new word in upbringing.

Modern psychology proceeds from the continuous connection of the psyche with all other vital processes of the organism and seeks meaning, significance, laws of the development of the psyche precisely in the integral inclusion of the development of this psyche in the rest of the body's vital dispositions. Throughout its development, psychology was constantly enriched with new discoveries and became more fascinating. The psychology of the beginning of the last century was alien and beyond the power of the problems of dynamics, development, growth, change, upbringing. Her practical conclusions have always suffered from roughness and crude empiricality, generalizations of the most raw raw experience. Psychology atomized the child's personality, like the entire educational process, into a number of separate psychological functions (abilities, phenomena), fenced off from each other by a Chinese wall and surrounded by impassable trenches from all other vital processes in the child's body. And this psychological mosaic, patchwork and fragmentary theory of development, as much as possible, corresponded to the same mosaic pedagogy that tore to shreds, objects, the ability of the whole organism of a growing child. "

Until the appearance of "humanistic psychology" many of the problems and phenomena of human life (love, freedom, death, needs, self-actualization) were beyond the scope of psychological science. However, the modern appearance of psychology is completely different. It exists today in a variety of productive areas that ensure the integrity of the idea of ​​the laws of the human psyche. That is why the psychological competence of the teacher is an important element of his professional competence.

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