Arbitrariness of the psyche, Psychological features of perception...

Arbitrariness of the psyche

The fundamental principles of human existence laid the foundation for the development of civilizations, but before that, a completely different state of the psyche had to dominate-a state that has little in common with what is inherent in modern man and prevails throughout the last centuries. It is assumed that such an archaic state of the psyche is characteristic of the tribes that preserve the primitive way of life up to our time. French researchers drew attention to the peculiarities of the psyche of primitive tribes. Attempts were made to identify and systematize the differences between the world of primitive people and the world in which we live; In the end, it was possible to come to a distinction between two types of thinking and consciousness. We are striving for a clear, conscious thinking, clear definitions, differentiation of the object and subject, reality and imagination, establishing boundaries between things as such, etc. At the same time, our idea is constantly correlated with empirical reality. However, there is another, non-logical (or pre-logical) type of thinking, for which such qualities as imagery, clarity, and saturation with specific and symbolic meanings are characteristic. Dolological thinking allows the replacement of some things by others and the union of figurative representations; as a result, heterogeneous phenomena merge into a single picture, and empirical integrity is split into heterogeneous connections and meanings. Such a protein interchange of forms and images becomes a true reality, replacing in this function empirical space and time, or, better to say, in the system of primitive thinking, space and time do not yet exist as categories of reality and logic.

If we turn to the figurative content of psychotic experiences, the types of psychotic thinking, the methods of selection and systematization of objects, the seeming chaos of fantastic ideas, and also to symbolism and magic, we find in them a number of surprising parallels to the myths, concepts and ways of thinking of primitive people. The juxtaposition of myth and psychosis is a favorite topic of the Freudian school researchers, especially Jung.

Cognition is the assimilation of the sensory content of the experienced or experienced state of things, state, processes in order to find the truth. Since the time of Greek philosophy, cognition has been studied as a process. At the same time, the person's abilities and the process of progress toward knowledge are studied.

Psychological features of perception, channels for obtaining and processing information

Memory is a prerequisite for learning from experience. There are many learning processes today. Education through the formation of conditioned reflexes (IP Pavlov) serves the classical conditions and is contested only in unicellular. Instrumental training (B. Skinner): An animal in an artificially created environment (for example, the so-called Skinner box), itself carries out actions for which it is rewarded or punished. Training through exercise and habit, for example, improving flight capabilities (hovering, climbing upwind). Learning through trial and error is probably the most important mode of learning in higher animals and humans. Learning by imitation is very rare and is found in some birds (training in generic singing), highly developed mammals and humans. Learning through understanding actually occurs only in humans.

In the question of the content of teaching, it is necessary to distinguish between what the animals learn from themselves and what they can bring. Observation of free behavior and training always gives cause for surprise. Animals have pronounced phases of learning ability. Approximate-research behavior is limited to young years; Adult animals are trained under the pressure of special circumstances (for example, the threat of the enemy). In people, on the other hand, curiosity is preserved until old age.

Understanding is the comprehension of logical and causal connections and is sometimes expressed in a sudden adaptive reorganization of ways of behavior. Understanding the behavior of animals has been the subject of many observations, but it is still unknown what processes in the brain lie at its base. As understanding, for example, the following achievements (without training) appear.

The monkey inserts two sticks into each other and piles boxes on top of each other to reach a banana (making and using guns). The dog bypasses a spatial obstacle, for example a fence (achievement of bypass). Monkeys open the doors, closed by a complex system of valves. Living on the loose, they clean the branches from the leaves, thrust them into the termite quarry, and then eat the insects attached to the branch. Operations with representations, concepts and judgments that are based on contemplation do not have a name, because there is no verbal language, O. Koehler calls wordless thinking. This is an achievement of pre-conceptual abstraction. This scientist explains the following observation: the mouse learns to run without errors a labyrinth, which on twenty T-shaped ramifications requires correct solutions. Then the labyrinth is offered to her in a new, "transposed" form, namely linearly doubled, distorted, i.e. with oblique rather than straight angles, curved and, finally, mirrored. In the new labyrinth, the mouse does almost as little errors without dressing as in the old one.

Pigeons are taught to distinguish four grains from five or to pick out only five grains from the pile, and leave the rest untouched. Consequently, they can numerically perceive and operate, have simultaneous and serial possibilities for non-called numbers. In galoks such opportunities extend to six, a crow, a parrot, magpies, squirrels - up to seven, a gray parrot - even up to eight. If a person is prevented from using the appropriate words of the account, then he reaches no more than these animals.

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