THE ARTISTIC AND AESTHETIC DEVELOPMENT OF A CHILD
In the field of artistically aesthetic development of children, pedagogical work is conducted in the following areas:
• development of aesthetic attitude to the world around children;
• their involvement in the visual activities;
• musical development of children;
• Introduction to theatrical activities.
The child's acquisition of a spiritual culture can and should begin as early as possible. Even the smallest are able to perceive beauty in the world around them, show interest in music, works of art, poetry, theatrical productions. Early impressions enrich the emotional sphere of the child with special experiences, form the basis of his aesthetic worldview, contribute to the formation of moral guidelines. Of great importance for the overall development is the child's own participation in different types of artistic and aesthetic activity. At the same time, his ability to perceive and emotionally respond to the beauty in the surrounding world - in nature, human relations, the world of things - is aggravated. Children begin to listen more attentively, to peer into the surrounding, learn to notice the originality, uniqueness of objects and phenomena, to realize and express their feelings. In the process of artistic activity, they receive ample opportunities for self-expression, disclosure and improvement of their creative abilities. Classes of visual activity, music, dancing contribute to the development of visual, auditory, motor analyzers and their coordination, encourage the child to learn new complex activities, to get new knowledge, to fantasize, to be attentive and diligent.
The adult is called upon to help him discover the features of beauty in the world around him, to attach to accessible kinds of artistic and aesthetic activity both in everyday communication of adults with children and in special games.
Development of aesthetic attitude to the world around children
The role of the adult in the development of the aesthetic attitude of the child to the surrounding reality is not only to draw the child's attention to beautiful things, the phenomena of nature, works of art, but also to include him in the process of empathy about the perceived. Of course, an adult should be able to experience and express aesthetic emotions, respond to the feelings of the baby.
The subject of a joint aesthetic experience can be not only works of art, but also manifestations of beauty in everyday life: a bright mat on the floor or a vase on the table, colorful cups for tea or smart baby clothes. For example, placing dishes on the table, you can ask the children: "And where are our beautiful cups?" Here these yellowies we put on the table Mashenka and Pete, with red specks - Sashenka and Tanyusha & quot ;. You can ask the kids to choose a vase for flowers or leaves brought from a walk, say: "That's what a beautiful bouquet turned out to be!" Educators should pay attention to children's decorative details of clothing (bows, embroidery on the pocket, beautiful buttons).
Looking at the pictures in the books with the children, you can draw their attention to the red cockerel boots, to the bright, cheerful pattern of the sarafan matryoshka, to note in the illustrations and the opposite examples: the dirty girl, the slob-pig. In order to familiarize the children with the standards, the "beautiful - ugly" you can pick up the appropriate pictures from the books and discuss them with them. Do not use as a negative example of the appearance of children.
Special attention should be given to the interior of the room in which the children are. It is known that for the development of a person's ability to perceive and distinguish between beautiful and ugly extremely important is the early experience of capturing the surrounding world. Group facilities, stairs, corridors of children's institutions should be beautiful, tastefully decorated. They can decorate children's drawings, hand-made articles, illustrations of paintings, exhibitions of works of folk art, which should be periodically changed, drawing children's attention to the fact that a new and beautiful appeared in the group room. The subject of joint observation can be just a blossoming flower on the windowsill, an unusual bouquet in a vase, dried leaves of trees, their color, shape, etc.
It is important to pay attention to the beauty of nature in all its manifestations (trees and grass in autumn and spring, sparkling snow or frost, a pattern of ice puddles, transparent icicles, a rainbow of colors etc.). You can choose in advance appropriate verses or fragments from them, notes of musical fragments, pictures that will contribute to a more emotional response of the child to the surroundings, and fix the impressions received by him. During the walk, children should be encouraged to play with a variety of natural materials: leaves, grass, snow, sand, stones, water, etc. So, it is possible to add patterns-carpets from twigs and flowers, decorate houses of sand with grass and stones; admire the flight of fluffy snowflakes, listen to the merry murmur of the brook. The educator offers the children to compare, compare, establish the similarity of the observed phenomena, using artistic images. For example, the "leaves are rustling, as if whispering"; "A pebble is cold, like ice" or looks like a frog & quot ;. Kids learn to feel the unusual nature of what is happening in nature (a colorful rain droplet on a branch, a blossoming bud, a color palette of the sky, a creak of snow, etc.). Such observations contribute to the accumulation of artistic impressions, create a basis for the development of aesthetic activity.
Toddlers are extremely sensitive to the emotional manifestations of an adult: his sincere admiration or surprise at meeting with the beautiful always find their response. Any attempts to express their aesthetic experiences should be supported and approved by an adult. It should be borne in mind that aesthetic emotions can not occur in a child at the instructor's orders, this requires a special attitude and an adult can only contribute to its emergence. It is necessary to be sensitive and delicate in addressing the mood of the baby. Forcing and imposing lead to emasculation of the senses, formation of a negative attitude towards communication on aesthetic topics.
Of particular importance in the aesthetic education of children is acquaintance with works of art . The earlier the meeting of the child with the world of art takes place, the better. At the same time, it is necessary to observe the measure, proceeding from its individual characteristics, desires, preferences. If the child does not want to listen to music, the poem (he is tired, distracted), do not insist, you can draw his attention to it some other time, or pick something different for the joint perception.
To enrich the reserve of children's impressions, it is useful to listen to fragments of classical poetic and musical works as illustrations to various activities. Kids with pleasure move under emotionally expressive fragments of M. Glinka, P. Tchaikovsky, H. Gluck, A. Vivaldi, J. Bizet, willingly fantasize, associating musical images with their life impressions. Such works contain a deep emotional content necessary for the education of aesthetic feelings in children. It is important that works of art are included in the context of communication between an adult and a child, accompanying his life. For example, going out with the kids for a walk on a clear winter day, you can expressively read an excerpt from the poem by A.S. Pushkin "Winter Morning": "Frost and sun; day is wonderful! Or, looking at the flowers with the children - "My little bells, steppe flowers! What are you looking at me, dark blue? A.K. Tolstoy. Putting children to sleep, you can sing a lullaby song or turn on her recording, then under the same musical fragment ask the kids to shake the dolls and the like.
Reading of nursery rhymes, fairy tales should be accompanied by viewing illustrations by V. Vasnetsov, I. Bilibin, T. Mavrina, etc.
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