Basic didactic concepts
At present, in theory there are many traditional and innovative didactic concepts. Basic didactic concepts can be divided into three groups according to the time of their appearance. The first didactic concept was formed in accordance with the initial period of formation and development of the system of primary and secondary education in European countries in the XVIII-XIX centuries. under the influence of its creators Ya. A. Komensky, I. Pestalozzi, IF Herbart and was named traditional. Its distinctive features became the dominant role of the teacher, the organization of training on the basis of the class-lesson system, the key role of book learning and verbal teaching methods. The achievements of the traditional didactic concept are significant today.
It is within the framework of this concept that three main provisions of didactics were formed.
1. The principle of educational training in the organization of training.
2. Formal steps that determine the structure of education.
3. The logic of the teacher's activity in the lesson is the presentation of the material through his explanation by the teacher, assimilation during the exercise with the teacher and the application of the lessons learned in subsequent learning tasks.
At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. began to form a new didactic concept, which was based on the first achievements of psychology on the development of the child and the forms of organization of educational activities. This stage in the development of didactics coincided with the stage of general renewal of all aspects in the life of most developed countries, both in Europe and in America, including the reform of traditional pedagogical systems that did not meet the challenges of modern times. In the mainstream of reformist pedagogy, simultaneously, in many countries, a pedocentric didactic concept was born, the distinctive feature of which can be expressed in the pedagogical formula " Vom Kindeaus - "based on the child", proposed by the Swedish teacher Ellen Kay (1849-1926) in the book "The Age of the Child". Adherents of this concept distinguished the call to develop creative creative forces in the child. They believed that the child's experience and the accumulation of personal experience should play a leading role in upbringing, and therefore the main examples of the realization of the pedocentric concept were also called the theory of free education.A great contribution to the development of the pedocentric didactic concept was made by teachers and psychologists from different countries who created their own pedagogical concepts and schools: the Italian psychiatrist and teacher M. Montessori (1870-1952), the German scientist V. A. Lai ( 1862-1926), the Austrian philosopher R. Steiner (1861-1925), the French psychologist A. Binet (1857-1911) and the teacher S. Frenet (1896-1966), American educators and psychologists D. Dewey (1859-1952) and E. Thorndike (1874-1949), domestic scholars and psychologists Π. F. Kapterev (1849-1922), KN Wentzel (1857-1947), ST Shatsky (1878-1934), VP Vakhterev (1853-1924), Π. P. Blonsky (1884-1941) and many others
The authors of this concept focused their attention on the need to start from the child's worldview in the organization of the educational process, out of respect for the child's inner world, so unlike the adult world, from creating an atmosphere of warmth, love, and security for the child. Therefore, the entire educational process, according to the pedocentric concept, should be built only in accordance with the laws of child development and in close relationship with the environment, for which the main method was the inclusion of the child in free creative activity: cognitive, artistic, creative, playful and labor.
Modern didactic concept began to form in the last third of the XX century. and included the achievements of the entire history of the development of educational theory and practice. The initial theoretical basis of the modern didactic concept is built on the understanding of learning as a developing and nurturing process, a means of personal development in accordance with socially determined goals and educational demands of citizens. Based on this definition, five functions of the modern didactic concept are formulated:
1) social learning function, the implementation of which is aimed at the formation of a personality that meets public needs and is able to adapt in the modern world;
2) personality-developing function, aimed at developing a person's ability to self-development and self-realization, the formation of spiritual essence and moral formation;
3) health preservation function, responsible for maintaining the potential for healthy development;
4) social protection function, contributes to the formation of a sense of vital stability and motivation for further social activity in the most difficult living conditions;
5) the function of cultural broadcasting, aimed at preparing students for the development of the existing cultural heritage and the formation of a sustainable need for its further creative development.
It is also important to note that the modern didactic concept is built on the basis of an equitable position of all subjects of learning, and therefore one of its main concepts is the concept of "interaction". On the basis of interaction in modern didactics, various forms of cooperation between teachers and students are being developed, on the one hand, and cooperation between learners with each other, on the other. Many options for organizing interaction in the teaching and educational process have generated several didactic approaches in the treatment of the modern didactic concept, which can be divided into three groups.
The first group includes collectivist, activity and personal approaches that combines A holistic approach.
The second group includes system, optimization, technological approaches, A creative (innovative) approach.
The third group is currently represented by one, according to the actively developing integrative approach, which is the most complex character .
All these approaches in the learning process are closely interrelated, mutually reinforcing, mutually presupposing and interpenetrating into each other, have an extremely important and fundamental character for the development of the modern education system.The modern didactic concept is directly related to the evolving social practices, which, inheriting classical traditions, each time changes in accordance with the social situation and is transformed in accordance with innovative findings and solutions . To date, there are seven topical problems of the development of education systems of different countries, which are designed to solve the modern didactic concept. We will name only the four most acute.
The first problem - changing the goals of the educational system, the transition from knowledge-centric the organization of learning, determining the leading goals and results of learning the knowledge, skills and skills of the student, to the humanistic personal-centered orientation, to the development and self-realization of the essential forces, abilities and talents of the person as the main goal of education.
The second problem - a significant expansion of the content base of education, which significantly complicates the already difficult procedure of selecting content education.
The third problem - the transition of United States education to the position of variation in educational programs and the variety of types of educational institutions.
The fourth problem is the orientation toward regional and ethnic features of school activities, the gradual transition to non-traditional methods of teaching, the active use of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics.
Searches for answers to identified problems allow us to find support points and highlight the main areas of work on the development of educational practice. So, in the national educational strategy, "Our new school" the basic basic provisions of the modern didactic concept were confirmed in the planned ways of modernizing the system of general secondary education: the development of new educational standards, the development of the personality of the student, the preparation of a new generation of teachers on the basis of modern requirements for his competence.
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