Basic didactic difficulties of pedagogical interaction and methods for overcoming them
Let's consider in more detail specific practical features of interaction in the educational process, didactic difficulties, patterns of perception and thinking of students, methodological methods, ways of organizing and presenting material, conditions for optimizing learning.
The observations and conclusions presented here reflect the personal pedagogical experience of the author of this chapter. Some facts are far from indisputable, others contradict the widespread stereotypes of pedagogy, which are quite fully represented in the literature. However, acquaintance with the author's views system will help the thoughtful reader to form his own unique pedagogical methodology and apply it creatively.
First of all I want to dwell on one obvious fact, which is known to almost everyone, but not all of them make the right conclusions from it. Practically in any training group, class, on the course, all students can be conditionally divided into at least four (in the first approximation) unequal groups.
The first includes the most talented, easily mastered material trainees, their number is, as a rule, from 10 to 20% of the total; in the second (30-40%) - students with average abilities, "good" and smart troesers & quot ;; the third group consists of students with abilities slightly below the average level, usually succeeding on the "weak" three " (often the same 30-40%); the fourth group is poorly performing, a satisfactory estimate for them is often the limit of dreams, their percentage may be different (in general, the percentages given are very approximate and vary depending on the contingent and the learning environment). In the pedagogical literature, various recommendations for optimizing learning are given, taking this feature into account.
The main conclusion that the beginning teacher needs to understand is the level and the "language" This can be achieved if in the presentation of the material equally used different forms, levels of its representation: the most complex, abstract and theoretical and simpler visual: physical, graphic, constructive, simplest examples and analogies. From our point of view, it is necessary to start with the most general and strict abstract form, then develop, deepen, explain it with examples and simplest analogies, perceived even by the weakest. This applies to each block of teaching material, to each didactic unit. Only in this case, and excellent students will be interesting, and troechnikam - it is understandable.
The second interesting fact is that in answering the question posed, solving the problem, the case, most of the students in their minds form one of two stable statements: "I know = remember", "I do not know = I do not remember." In most cases, I do not know the trainee tries to remember the material. At the same time, from the point of view of the developmental learning strategy, it is necessary that he, having clarified the essence of the matter, compares it with all the facts, laws, including those from adjacent areas of knowledge, and by logical inference, building the most probable hypotheses, found the necessary answer, or, in any case, realized what minimal additional information is needed to find it. This is the essence of the process of effective thinking.
Overcoming the binary stereotype I know - I do not know - one of the important tasks, solve which the learner helps the teacher.
In more detail, consider the characteristic didactic difficulties, one of which is a non-optimal perception. The reasons for the latter can be high tempo, inadequate level of complexity of presentation, lack of motivation, distractions, etc. Here it should be emphasized that the end result of perception is understanding, the criterion of which is the consistent integration of the perceived facts into the system of consciousness. In the learning process, much of the information is acquired when working with literature. Unfortunately, some students and even teachers do not think about how productive they are reading. At the same time, the importance of this skill can not be overemphasized.
The perception of textual and graphic information is one of the basic operations of intellectual activity. And the effectiveness of this process largely determines the success and quality of cognitive processes of the upper level: memorization, the formation of concepts, thinking (figurative, abstract, concrete, functional, regulatory). From the system point of view, it is at the stage of perception of information that primary, conscious mental representations are formed, as well as the emotional color of the perceived material, which is the product of the activity of consciousness and the unconscious. At this stage, the foundations of understanding the meaning are laid, the level of memorizing the material is determined, mental links with other knowledge are actualized, primary reconciliation and structuring of information are made.
The main elements of educational and scientific materials are: text, formulas, illustrations (drawings, graphics, diagrams, etc.). The process of consecutive visual holistic conscious awareness of textual and graphic information in the first approximation is a reading. It should be noted that its effectiveness is defined as the speed, correlated with the achieved level of awareness and memorization of the material. Technological methods to improve the efficiency of reading are well developed. At the same time, a holistic approach to the development of reading skills as a primary operation in the cognitive system deserves attention. From this point of view, it is necessary to purposefully develop the ability to perceive images in reading, the ability to "quantize" text, highlighting certain semantic blocks.
The productive level of data of intellectual skills is, first of all, the ability to conduct a mental dialogue with the author, to synthesise one's own thoughts and ideas directly on the basis of what has been read. Undoubtedly, this level corresponds to the highest degree of development of creative reader skills. Actually, one of the main tasks of the academic and scientific text, in addition to communicating information, is the awakening of thought. Implementation of this approach is impossible without taking into account individual characteristics of perception, intellectual strategies, and thinking styles. Relevant psychological and pedagogical recommendations can be found in the monograph of one of the authors.
Let's move from the difficulties of perception to the difficulties of comprehension of information. The main difficulty in this case is the application of existing knowledge. In particular, when solving a problem, the learner must understand whether he has the knowledge necessary to solve, what is their form, in which source one can obtain the necessary information. Often, he can not realize if enough of the available knowledge to solve. Typical situations - there is no necessary knowledge (not enough), they are not received, forgotten, not actualized (the student does not assume that they can be used to solve this particular task). Most often, knowledge is unsystematic, not interconnected, which is why their application is difficult. Another characteristic phenomenon is the phenomenon of "box intelligence" (in the terminology of AI Subetto). In one box there is mathematics, in the other physics, in the third literature, etc. The main thing is that the learner strives to use the conceptual and methodical apparatus of this particular discipline, which is clearly not enough, especially when solving non-standard problems. Thus, the formation of a knowledge system is the main way to overcome the "boxiness" intelligence.
In the concept of the system of knowledge, one of the main places belongs to their logical organization and the rules of inference.
Logical difficulties are very common, to which it is possible to include difficulties characteristic of certain categories of trainees in the performance of elementary logical operations: definitions of concepts, formation of inferences, comparison, determination of significance, evaluation. Often, in certain didactic units, the learner finds it difficult to match the following evaluation results: "important", "more importantly", "less important", "not important". Far from everyone, everyone can select from the set of facts (phenomena, connections) the required subset of really significant ones, to produce their logical connection and formulate an assertion (conclusion). It is difficult to classify objects.
The upper level is the didactic difficulties experienced by almost all trainees, except for individual representatives of the group of the most talented. These are difficulties in generating ways to solve problems (problems), or insight, creative difficulties, limited imagination syndrome, the difficulties of free operating specific concepts, laws, the transfer of known methods and patterns to new tasks. In a separate group, it is necessary to distinguish the difficulties of the correct representation of various objects and phenomena by models, primarily from the point of view:
- the specified accuracy of representation (coarsening);
- the correct formation of the initial assumptions and assumptions;
- the possibility of an adequate description of the model of models of objects, phenomena and processes.
Thus, the analysis of the main didactic difficulties shows that in order to overcome them, it is necessary in various ways to form in the students certain intellectual skills from the most elementary to the most complex, certain intellectual tools.
The main, from our point of view, are the following skills: compare, correlate concepts, highlight the main, systematize, classify, use associations, identify patterns, transform, transfer, and deploy concepts, take into account the dynamics of processes, draw logical conclusions, find ideal solutions and ways to implement them.Development of the formulated skills and competencies presupposes the appropriate selection and structuring of educational material, methods and forms of instruction, activation of students' own abilities, the formation of creative innovative thinking. Specific methods of solving this problem applied to its subject area teacher develops himself. It is especially important to learn how to analyze your own didactic experience and use the results of this analysis in the educational process, which certainly contributes to the effectiveness of pedagogical interaction.
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