Causes of conflicts in the interaction in the educational process
An important issue for analyzing the impact of conflicts in educational activities is the definition of their causes. The approach to the classification of the causes of conflicts, their analysis and generalization existing in the theory of conflictology will give the teacher some tool for managing real conflicts and cultivating conflicting interests. W. Lincoln proposes to distinguish the following causal factors of conflicts:
1. Informational - the acceptability or inadmissibility of information for the interaction participants.
2. Behavioral - inappropriateness, ineffective style, selfishness, unpredictability, and other behaviors rejected by one of the parties.
3. Relationship Factors - the degree of satisfaction from the interaction between two or more parties.
4. Valuable - principles, the pursuit of which is meaningful for people, the realization of which is expected (professional, cultural, religious, ideological, etc.).
5. Structural are relatively stable circumstances that are difficult or even impossible to change (law, age, subordination, time, accessibility of technology and other means that support the learning process).
From what has been said, it follows that without knowing the cause of the conflict it is difficult to manage it, and the cause is to eliminate it. A. Ya. Antsupov and AI Shipilov give a classification of the causes of conflicts, based on the fact that the latter are objectively subjective in nature and can be combined into four groups (Figure 10.2).
Fig. 10.2. Classification of causes of conflicts
In the literature on the problem in question, the most common causes of conflicts associated with the subject and the object of management are also singled out. Organizational and managerial factors and situations that are not dependent on people are mostly objective in nature, socially-psychological and personal - mostly subjective.
As shown by the interview conducted by the listeners of the Institute of Continuous Education of the Herzen State Pedagogical University, among the causes of conflicts "administrator-teacher" affecting the atmosphere of the pedagogical collective can be noted such as inefficient organization of teachers' work; lack of regulation of working conditions and a temporary regime, safety of vital activity on the part of the administration; insufficient experience of managing the OS; aspiration to use the administrative resource as much as possible; strict regulation of school life, the estimated and mandatory character of the application of requirements; unplanned forms of monitoring the activities of the teacher; the underestimation of the teacher's professional ambition; inefficient staff motivation; an undeveloped career, the lack of the opportunity to learn not by the profile of the taught subject, the inefficient corporate image of the OS, and the weak organizational culture imposed on the organization's staff.
Common reasons for conflicts through the fault of workers themselves include the lack of conscious discipline and responsibility; personal disorganization of employees, ignorance of official duties or deliberate ignoring of them; antipathy, hostility towards each other, feelings of resentment and envy of some teachers towards others, negative and accentuated character traits, socio-psychological incompatibility, demotivation of workers, etc. In conflicts such as "teacher-teacher" most often encounter teachers of different ages (a young specialist and a teacher of retirement age, a beginner teacher and a teacher with experience), of different nationalities, having their own offices and those who are forced to work in the "foreign" auditoriums; having a different level of communicative culture and professional competence, etc.
The subjective causes of conflicts are mainly related to those individual psychological features of the participants in the conflict situation, which lead to the fact that the conflict method of resolving the objective contradiction that has arisen is being chosen. A person does not compromise on the solution of the problem, does not concede, does not avoid conflict, does not try to solve the contradiction jointly with the partner, but chooses the strategy of confrontation.
As practice shows, modern pedagogical society is a social space of increased tension. The specificity of pedagogical work lies in the fact that the work of the teacher proceeds individually, as a single person's work. Working alone with the students, he, as a rule, is in a strong mental tension, which increases the likelihood of disadaptive regulation of the intellectual and emotional sphere. Many teachers are inadequately responding to the evaluation of their personal data, do not always agree with the conclusions of the leaders that the unfavorable development of the pedagogical situation is often predetermined by the teacher's own personality-professional shortcomings. In addition, most teachers, as noted, for example, in the book "Human Resource Management in School," have high personal anxiety, due to which they tend to hyperbolize, dramatize events or fall into deaf psychological defense.
Given that most women work in the OS, another important reason, due to which the number of interpersonal conflicts increases, is the gender uniformity of the collective. These conflicts, as a rule, affect the professional sphere of relations, gradually developing into business conflicts that do not contribute to the normal development of the personality and ultimately the effectiveness of the educational process. The causes of conflicts in the teaching environment are many contradictions: different value orientations, personal psychophysical abilities of teachers united by one professional activity in the general social space and time, career ambitions.
Conflicts related to interaction of participants of the educational process also often have social and psychological reasons and are caused by direct interaction of people, a factor of their inclusion in social groups. These factors include unbalanced role interaction among participants, low motivation for joint activities, loss and distortion of information, intense interpersonal relations, differences in the ways of evaluating the performance of each other's personality, and psychological incompatibility. Individual-psychological incompatibility is manifested in the unsuccessful combination of temperaments and characters of interacting people. With socio-psychological incompatibility, a contradiction is fixed in the values of life and ideals, motives, and goals of activity. Social incompatibility can be manifested in the discrepancy of beliefs, worldviews, ideological attitudes, and the like. The reason for interpersonal conflicts can also be limited human capacity for decentralization, i.e. to the ability to put oneself in the place of another person and understand his interests, to change his own position as a result of comparing it with the positions of other people.
The personal causes of the conflict are associated with the individual psychological features of the participants in the interaction, which are determined by the specifics of the processes occurring in the human psyche in the course of its interaction with others, working together. For reasons that are more psychological, the following can be attributed:
1. The nature of the behavior, which depends on the individual psychological characteristics of a person, his mental state, his relationship to a specific interaction partner, and the specifics of the actual interaction situation. If the actual behavior of partners falls within the framework of the desired or permissible, then the interaction continues without conflict.
2. Low level of social and psychological competence. The unpreparedness of people for effective actions in such situations leads to conflict. The participants in the interaction may have no idea that there are several ways and dozens of techniques for conflict-free exit from pre-conflict situations without prejudice to one's own interests. They may have an idea of these techniques and methods, but they do not have the skills and skills to apply them in practice.
3. Insufficient psychological stability to the negative impact on the psyche of stressful factors of social interaction. The most important direction in preventing the resolution of interpersonal conflicts is the content and psychological preparation of the participants in the interaction for optimal actions in pre-conflict and conflict situations.
4. Weakly developed empathy as the ability to put yourself in the place of another, the ability to respond emotionally to other people's experiences, leads to the fact that a person behaves in a situation of social interaction not as expected partners in communication, or do not always understand the feelings of an interaction partner.
5. An overstated or undervalued level of also contributes to interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts. Overestimated self-esteem ( Narcissus complex or stellar disease ) usually causes a negative reaction from others. Low self-esteem ("inferiority complex" or "loser complex") results in a developed inferiority complex, which is associated with increased anxiety, lack of self-confidence, a tendency to avoid responsibility, etc.
6. The choleric type of temperament of a person relatively often can lead to the resolution of contradictory situations by him in a conflict way. One of the most frequently encountered personal causes of conflicts is also various accentuations of character (lability, sensitivity, hypertension, psychasthenia, hysteroid, conformism, etc.).
As the practice of interaction in the educational process shows, the timely identification of the causes of the conflict situation is a tool for its prevention, as well as a constructive completion. In addition to the factors listed above, there may be objective causes of conflicts in the educational process, for example:
1) due to the unfavorable economic and socio-political situation in the country and the region, the material base of the Shelter does not meet the demands of the time and the technologies introduced into the learning process;
2) substantial and methodological imperfection of the educational process: failure to comply with common universally accepted requirements for trainees, lack of continuity and ill-conceived introduction of new ideas and technologies; violation of psychological and pedagogical requirements in the organization of the educational process, scheduling, load distribution, classroom management, training rooms, information resources;
3) the lack of communicative and interactive competence, skills of constructive partner communication, abuse of one-dimensional communication among the administration and teachers;
4) underestimation of the importance of the development of personal individuality of teachers (psychological and age characteristics, marital status, behavior and professional image) and new requirements of the parents of pupils, presented to training personnel, etc.
Thus, the conflict in the pedagogical environment, as a rule, arises on the basis of objective conditions with the appropriate inclusion of the subjective factor - individual psychological, socio-psychological and scientific-worldview qualities of the teacher's personality. In recent years, the problem of outflow from educational institutions of highly qualified young teachers has become increasingly important for OS. This is not only an economic loss, since it is precisely in the development and training of a highly professional group of educators that the greatest investment is invested, but also losses related to the deficit of "intellectual capital" in the OS.
The positive role of conflicts (when both sides gain positive experience) or the negative role (when the conflict destroys interaction) depends on how much the teacher effectively and competently controls them, how the causes of conflict situations are understood and blocked, what is being done to create a favorable atmosphere in class.
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