Characteristics of new models, technologies and teaching methods
We have already pointed out the relativity of the definition of new methods, means, technologies. Any innovation after its appearance is approved, enters into practice, is mastered gradually. It is being improved, changing, new opportunities are emerging, in other words, there is a period of innovative development, which usually lasts for decades. After that, it becomes habitual, mastered and becomes a traditional one. We will define the method, the technology, the approach, the means as new, bearing in mind both the time of innovation and the period of its introduction into practice (initially this is an innovation), as well as the first period of its intensive mastering of mass educational practice.
Let's consider in more detail the concept of "technology and its connection with the traditional concept of "teaching method". The expression "new technology" has become very common. learning. It's not a matter of novelty. New or traditional can be both a method and a technology. In widespread use, the word technology has entered relatively recently and, it must be said, quite aggressively, partially absorbing and absorbing the concepts: the method, the model, the process, the learning system. This is the case with the broad interpretation of this concept. In the general sense, as defined by UNESCO, technology is a "systematic method of creating, applying and assimilating knowledge, taking into account technical and human resources and their interaction, which seeks to optimize the forms of education." The technology from this position is defined as the procedural part of the didactic system (M. Choshanov) as a model of pedagogical activity in designing, organizing and conducting the educational process with unconditional provision of conditions for students and teachers (VM Monakhov) as a systemic set and procedure for functioning all personal, instrumental and methodological means, which should guarantee the achievement of pedagogical goals (MV Clarin).
Q. II. Bespalko in the work "Components of the pedagogical technology" highlights the following leading elements:
1) a clear, consistent definition of the goals of education and upbringing;
2) structuring, ordering, compaction of the information to be learned;
3) the integrated use of didactic training and control tools, including technical, including computer;
4) strengthening the diagnostic functions of teaching and upbringing;
5) the guarantee of a sufficiently high level of training quality.
Andreev reads: "Pedagogical technology, including the technology of education, is a system of designing and practical application of adequate goals, principles, content, forms, methods and means that guarantee a sufficiently high level of their effectiveness, including during the subsequent reproduction and stimulation & quot ;. In the most general sense, pedagogical technology replaces the notion of "didactics" and training & quot ;. According to G. Selevko's definition, "pedagogical technology functions as a science exploring the most rational ways of learning, and as a system of methods, principles and regulators used in teaching, and as a real learning process". This author uses hundreds of different models, systems and techniques as technologies.
We believe that the concept of technology it is more correct to use it in a narrower, more concrete way, as a way of designing optimal procedures for designing and implementing the educational process, as a system of actions, steps, operations that ensure guaranteed receipt of planned results. At the heart of educational technologies is the idea of the maximum possible controllability and reproducibility of procedures that ensure the solution of the tasks of training, education and personality development.
In this sense, technology does not absorb the concept of "learning method" as a way of organizing and implementing the joint activity of the educator and students, and in many cases supplements and concretizes the concepts of the method or their totality (methodology). The method remains a more flexible, variant, authoring learning tool. He is more like an instrument depends on the skill and skill of the teacher. Technology is more strict, unambiguous, procedurally worked out, algorithmic, less dependent on the personal qualities of the teacher, it can be transferred, borrowed, implemented with the help of manuals and training devices. Inferior to methods and techniques in flexibility and humaneness, the technologies carry the ability to streamline, optimize, increase the intensity and effectiveness of training, and ensure results.
Typical features of educational technologies are profitability, diagnostic purposes, manageability, which involves step-by-step diagnostics, variation by means with the purpose of correction of the results. However, the freedom to choose the ways and means of achieving results by the teacher and students, the creative element of the activity in the technological approach is still limited to the planned and already tested options.
The above, in our opinion, explains why such an attractive idea of technological education, especially in relation to new approaches and tools, is used increasingly, but also explains why one should not abandon the rich possibilities of the arsenal of traditional methods and approaches. The conclusion is obvious: to use both, combining them in a unified educational system or integrating their development opportunities in the bosom of both traditional and new approaches, methods and technologies, considering that standard elements can and even are useful for technologizing, but the creative elements of activity as such, are non-technological.
In the middle of the XIX century. The crisis phenomena in education, which were associated with its lagging behind the demands of a new cultural and historical era-the transition from an industrial to a post-industrial society-became acutely felt. In the modern era, the emphasis is on the human (axiological and anthropological concepts) and information that he must be able to extract and use. In our time, information (any kind of information about objects, facts, concepts, processes in a particular subject area) has the same, if not great, strategic value, as well as traditional material and energy resources.
Knowledge of information is one of the essential factors determining the progress and competitiveness of a country, region, branch of science or industry.The avalanche-like growth of the information flow and the rapidly growing importance of information pose before the formation the actual tasks of selecting key, fundamental provisions in the general array of information, increasing the capacity of information carriers and finding more efficient ways of mastering and using it. This requires the development of new information technologies (BAT). Moreover, education serves not only as an active consumer, but also as a developer of NIT, primarily for the education system itself. It is still necessary to open and fully implement the developing potential of computerization and informatization of education.
In the majority of traditional teaching methods, there is an irregular feedback, therefore, the management and operational correction of the educational process is limited.
Many methods of traditional learning limit the development of self-reliance, self-management, self-improvement, poorly trained students for self-control, self-management, self-development and self-realization.
All this and required the development of new educational technologies with the extensive use of computer technology, new technical means of communication and distance learning, database management, navigation tools in the information flow.
Thus, new information and communication technologies, the emergence and spread of distance education are designed to solve the problems of broad access to information and at the same time continuity and improvement of the education received. Unfortunately, historical experience shows that a wide range of users, mass culture and education often contain the danger of quality reduction, loss of some of the valuable that has already been accumulated in experience. We need to take care that this does not happen in modern education.
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